Hello, @Paul Visser !
Is Azure available on a C5 compliant server in a C5 compliant data centre physically located in Germany?
Compliance questions are complicated and the details are important so you'll need to use the official compliance documentation to answer this question which I'm including below.
In the interest of giving you as succinct an answer as possible, I've also included some quotes which should give you as close to a yes/no answer as possible.
Germany and C5 compliance
Azure publishes a combined attestation report (C5:2020, SOC 2 Type 2, CSA STAR Attestation) based on the audit assessment performed by an independent auditor, which provides proof of compliance with C5:2020.
Data Center Geography
Most Azure services enable you to specify the region where your customer data will be stored and processed. Microsoft may replicate to other regions for data resiliency, but Microsoft will not store or process customer data outside the selected Geo. You and your users may move, copy, or access your customer data from any location globally.
Data residency: Azure Germany Public cloud regions: Stored at rest in Germany. See Additional information for details.
In some cases, data for certain services may be stored outside of specified regions. See Additional information on this page for details.