does Azure limit the capability (supported parameters by SQL-Server) when one uses the trial version verses the regular version?
There are some limitations depending on the subscription which you are using.
There are multiple types of free subscriptions for Azure. The most common are probably:
(1) Visual Studio subscription 50$, 100$ or 150$
(2) Microsoft Azure Sponsorship Offer
(3) and the most common one: Azure free account
Azure free account subscription you get $200 Azure credit which you’ll have 30 days to use it.
In theory you can use all the options of the Azure SQL Database, but there might be a limitation on the parameter of region for example. There are some Quotas and Constraints limitation which you can read about on this document: Azure subscription and service limits, quotas, and constraints.
After the 30 days or 200$, you can continue free for 12 months. At this time you are limited to specific free services and free services tier.
For full information about the "Azure free account" please check this documentation: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/free/?WT.mc_id=DP-MVP-5001699
I also gave you the links to the other two common free subscriptions type above :-)
I hope that this cover your needs