@Adam Jacks , For the command in the Powershell script, it is used to collect hardware hash by querying the instance of the class "MDM_DevDetail_Ext01" under "root/cimv2/mdm/dmmap". Based on my checking on my machine, it exists on my win 10 machine.
We can open Powershell and run as administrator, run the similar commands as below to see if the class is there or if the instance is there:
Get-CimInstance -Namespace root/cimv2/mdm/dmmap -Class MDM_DevDetail_Ext01 -Filter "InstanceID='Ext' AND ParentID='./DevDetail'"
If the instance is not there, I think there's maybe some issue on the OS. We suggest to do a clean install on the affected device to see if it can appear.
Meanwhile, from the aspect view of Intune, maybe we can consider other enrollment methods on these affected device. Like Azure AD join +Auto enroll. Here is a link with more details for the reference:
Hope it can help.
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