anonymous user, Based on my testing, when I modify a setting catalog policy, I find the request is send with the Put method:
Request URL: https://graph.microsoft.com/beta/deviceManagement/configurationPolicies('3bb3d6d1-6692-4801-97c5-bfa5e626e478')
Then I test to send a request under Graph Explorer and find it works.
You can also try it to see if it works. However, if the device configuration policy is different. You can press "F12" to capture the log on Edge to find the request URL, method and Payload when we modify the policy in Intune portal, Here is one I captured in my environment. Then we can request in Microsoft Graph to see if it works.
Hope it can help.
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