Unfortunately temporary disk data cannot be recovered once it has been wiped.
An answer from ChristopherW-MSFT on another similar post.
Please keep in mind that Stopping, Resizing, or Restarting a Virtual Machine can clear the Temporary Disk. Temporary Disks should only be used for temporary data collection, or storage for brief transmission, and paging - Knowing that the data can be cleared at any moment. https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-machines/managed-disks-overview#temporary-disk
If your Virtual Machine isn't starting and you just want to recover the Disks, then deleting the Virtual Machine does NOT delete the Disks, they will stay in your Resource Group. Though you can also create 'Snapshots' of them to create a backup Disk out of.
Once you have these Disks, you can attach them to a new Virtual Machine as Data Disks to recover the data - You may want to attach the Backup OS Disk after the VM boots, or this can cause the VM to stall as you have no easy way to choose boot drives.
Attach a Managed Disk: https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-machines/windows/attach-managed-disk-portal