@Yann Filion , For the setting "Time to lock screen (work profile-level)",it sets the maximum time a user can set until the device locks. For example, when it set as 2 minutes, it means the users can set the time from 15 seconds up to 2 minutes.
At the same time, we need to set the amount of time for the lock screen separately. For this setting, I find now there's only related setting in device restriction profile for Personally owned work profile device. For Dedicated device, I find there's no such setting. The option to set it on official document is to set it is manually.
I know you want to set the settings automatically not manual. Here we suggest to feedback to Intune uservoice to request this feature to see if we can get it in the future:
Thanks for the understanding and have a nice day!
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