ASP.NET Core Razor component lifecycle

Note

This isn't the latest version of this article. For the current release, see the .NET 8 version of this article.

Important

This information relates to a pre-release product that may be substantially modified before it's commercially released. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, with respect to the information provided here.

For the current release, see the .NET 8 version of this article.

This article explains the ASP.NET Core Razor component lifecycle and how to use lifecycle events.

Lifecycle events

The Razor component processes Razor component lifecycle events in a set of synchronous and asynchronous lifecycle methods. The lifecycle methods can be overridden to perform additional operations in components during component initialization and rendering.

This article simplifies component lifecycle event processing in order to clarify complex framework logic and doesn't cover every change that was made over the years. You may need to access the ComponentBase reference source to integrate custom event processing with Blazor's lifecycle event processing. Code comments in the reference source include additional remarks on lifecycle event processing that don't appear in this article or in the API documentation.

Note

Documentation links to .NET reference source usually load the repository's default branch, which represents the current development for the next release of .NET. To select a tag for a specific release, use the Switch branches or tags dropdown list. For more information, see How to select a version tag of ASP.NET Core source code (dotnet/AspNetCore.Docs #26205).

The following simplified diagrams illustrate Razor component lifecycle event processing. The C# methods associated with the lifecycle events are defined with examples in the following sections of this article.

Component lifecycle events:

  1. If the component is rendering for the first time on a request:
    • Create the component's instance.
    • Perform property injection.
    • Call OnInitialized{Async}. If an incomplete Task is returned, the Task is awaited and then the component is rerendered. The synchronous method is called prior to the asychronous method.
  2. Call OnParametersSet{Async}. If an incomplete Task is returned, the Task is awaited and then the component is rerendered. The synchronous method is called prior to the asychronous method.
  3. Render for all synchronous work and complete Tasks.

Note

Asynchronous actions performed in lifecycle events might not have completed before a component is rendered. For more information, see the Handle incomplete async actions at render section later in this article.

A parent component renders before its children components because rendering is what determines which children are present. If synchronous parent component initialization is used, the parent initialization is guaranteed to complete first. If asynchronous parent component initialization is used, the completion order of parent and child component initialization can't be determined because it depends on the initialization code running.

Component lifecycle events of a Razor component in Blazor

DOM event processing:

  1. The event handler is run.
  2. If an incomplete Task is returned, the Task is awaited and then the component is rerendered.
  3. Render for all synchronous work and complete Tasks.

DOM event processing

The Render lifecycle:

  1. Avoid further rendering operations on the component when both of the following conditions are met:
  2. Build the render tree diff (difference) and render the component.
  3. Await the DOM to update.
  4. Call OnAfterRender{Async}. The synchronous method is called prior to the asychronous method.

Render lifecycle

Developer calls to StateHasChanged result in a render. For more information, see ASP.NET Core Razor component rendering.

When parameters are set (SetParametersAsync)

SetParametersAsync sets parameters supplied by the component's parent in the render tree or from route parameters.

The method's ParameterView parameter contains the set of component parameter values for the component each time SetParametersAsync is called. By overriding the SetParametersAsync method, developer code can interact directly with ParameterView's parameters.

The default implementation of SetParametersAsync sets the value of each property with the [Parameter] or [CascadingParameter] attribute that has a corresponding value in the ParameterView. Parameters that don't have a corresponding value in ParameterView are left unchanged.

If ComponentBase.SetParametersAsync isn't invoked with base.SetParametersAsync();, developer code can interpret the incoming parameters' values in any way required. For example, there's no requirement to assign the incoming parameters to the properties of the class.

If you choose not to call the base class method, you must call your own component initialization methods (OnInitialized/OnInitializedAsync). Otherwise, they won't be called because calling ComponentBase.SetParametersAsync is what invokes them. StateHasChanged must also be called after initialization. Refer to the ComponentBase reference source when structuring your code if you don't plan on calling ComponentBase.SetParametersAsync.

Note

Documentation links to .NET reference source usually load the repository's default branch, which represents the current development for the next release of .NET. To select a tag for a specific release, use the Switch branches or tags dropdown list. For more information, see How to select a version tag of ASP.NET Core source code (dotnet/AspNetCore.Docs #26205).

If you want to rely on the initialization and rendering API of ComponentBase.SetParametersAsync but not process incoming parameters, you have the option of passing an empty ParameterView to the base class method:

base.SetParametersAsync(ParameterView.Empty);

If event handlers are provided in developer code, unhook them on disposal. For more information, see the Component disposal with IDisposable IAsyncDisposable section.

In the following example, ParameterView.TryGetValue assigns the Param parameter's value to value if parsing a route parameter for Param is successful. When value isn't null, the value is displayed by the component.

Although route parameter matching is case insensitive, TryGetValue only matches case-sensitive parameter names in the route template. The following example requires the use of /{Param?} in the route template in order to get the value with TryGetValue, not /{param?}. If /{param?} is used in this scenario, TryGetValue returns false and message isn't set to either message string.

SetParamsAsync.razor:

@page "/set-params-async/{Param?}"

<PageTitle>Set Parameters Async</PageTitle>

<h1>Set Parameters Async Example</h1>

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string message = "Not set";

    [Parameter]
    public string? Param { get; set; }

    public override async Task SetParametersAsync(ParameterView parameters)
    {
        if (parameters.TryGetValue<string>(nameof(Param), out var value))
        {
            if (value is null)
            {
                message = "The value of 'Param' is null.";
            }
            else
            {
                message = $"The value of 'Param' is {value}.";
            }
        }

        await base.SetParametersAsync(parameters);
    }
}
@page "/set-params-async/{Param?}"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string message = "Not set";

    [Parameter]
    public string? Param { get; set; }

    public override async Task SetParametersAsync(ParameterView parameters)
    {
        if (parameters.TryGetValue<string>(nameof(Param), out var value))
        {
            if (value is null)
            {
                message = "The value of 'Param' is null.";
            }
            else
            {
                message = $"The value of 'Param' is {value}.";
            }
        }

        await base.SetParametersAsync(parameters);
    }
}
@page "/set-params-async/{Param?}"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string message = "Not set";

    [Parameter]
    public string? Param { get; set; }

    public override async Task SetParametersAsync(ParameterView parameters)
    {
        if (parameters.TryGetValue<string>(nameof(Param), out var value))
        {
            if (value is null)
            {
                message = "The value of 'Param' is null.";
            }
            else
            {
                message = $"The value of 'Param' is {value}.";
            }
        }

        await base.SetParametersAsync(parameters);
    }
}
@page "/set-params-async/{Param?}"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string message = "Not set";

    [Parameter]
    public string Param { get; set; }

    public override async Task SetParametersAsync(ParameterView parameters)
    {
        if (parameters.TryGetValue<string>(nameof(Param), out var value))
        {
            if (value is null)
            {
                message = "The value of 'Param' is null.";
            }
            else
            {
                message = $"The value of 'Param' is {value}.";
            }
        }

        await base.SetParametersAsync(parameters);
    }
}
@page "/set-params-async"
@page "/set-params-async/{Param}"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string message = "Not set";

    [Parameter]
    public string Param { get; set; }

    public override async Task SetParametersAsync(ParameterView parameters)
    {
        if (parameters.TryGetValue<string>(nameof(Param), out var value))
        {
            if (value is null)
            {
                message = "The value of 'Param' is null.";
            }
            else
            {
                message = $"The value of 'Param' is {value}.";
            }
        }

        await base.SetParametersAsync(parameters);
    }
}

Component initialization (OnInitialized{Async})

OnInitialized and OnInitializedAsync are invoked when the component is initialized after having received its initial parameters in SetParametersAsync. The synchronous method is called prior to the asychronous method.

If synchronous parent component initialization is used, the parent initialization is guaranteed to complete before child component initialization. If asynchronous parent component initialization is used, the completion order of parent and child component initialization can't be determined because it depends on the initialization code running.

For a synchronous operation, override OnInitialized:

OnInit.razor:

@page "/on-init"

<PageTitle>On Initialized</PageTitle>

<h1>On Initialized Example</h1>

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string? message;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        message = $"Initialized at {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}
@page "/on-init"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string? message;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        message = $"Initialized at {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}
@page "/on-init"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string? message;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        message = $"Initialized at {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}
@page "/on-init"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string message;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        message = $"Initialized at {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}
@page "/on-init"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string message;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        message = $"Initialized at {DateTime.Now}";
    }
}

To perform an asynchronous operation, override OnInitializedAsync and use the await operator:

protected override async Task OnInitializedAsync()
{
    await ...
}

If a custom base class is used with custom initialization logic, call OnInitializedAsync on the base class:

protected override async Task OnInitializedAsync()
{
    await ...

    await base.OnInitializedAsync();
}

It isn't necessary to call ComponentBase.OnInitializedAsync unless a custom base class is used with custom logic. For more information, see the Base class lifecycle methods section.

Blazor apps that prerender their content on the server call OnInitializedAsync twice:

  • Once when the component is initially rendered statically as part of the page.
  • A second time when the browser renders the component.

To prevent developer code in OnInitializedAsync from running twice when prerendering, see the Stateful reconnection after prerendering section. The content in the section focuses on Blazor Web Apps and stateful SignalR reconnection. To preserve state during the execution of initialization code while prerendering, see Prerender ASP.NET Core Razor components.

To prevent developer code in OnInitializedAsync from running twice when prerendering, see the Stateful reconnection after prerendering section. Although the content in the section focuses on Blazor Server and stateful SignalR reconnection, the scenario for prerendering in hosted Blazor WebAssembly solutions (WebAssemblyPrerendered) involves similar conditions and approaches to prevent executing developer code twice. To preserve state during the execution of initialization code while prerendering, see Prerender and integrate ASP.NET Core Razor components.

While a Blazor app is prerendering, certain actions, such as calling into JavaScript (JS interop), aren't possible. Components may need to render differently when prerendered. For more information, see the Prerendering with JavaScript interop section.

If event handlers are provided in developer code, unhook them on disposal. For more information, see the Component disposal with IDisposable IAsyncDisposable section.

Use streaming rendering with static server-side rendering (static SSR) or prerendering to improve the user experience for components that perform long-running asynchronous tasks in OnInitializedAsync to fully render. For more information, see ASP.NET Core Razor component rendering.

After parameters are set (OnParametersSet{Async})

OnParametersSet or OnParametersSetAsync are called:

  • After the component is initialized in OnInitialized or OnInitializedAsync.

  • When the parent component rerenders and supplies:

    • Known or primitive immutable types when at least one parameter has changed.
    • Complex-typed parameters. The framework can't know whether the values of a complex-typed parameter have mutated internally, so the framework always treats the parameter set as changed when one or more complex-typed parameters are present.

    For more information on rendering conventions, see ASP.NET Core Razor component rendering.

The synchronous method is called prior to the asychronous method.

For the following example component, navigate to the component's page at a URL:

  • With a start date that's received by StartDate: /on-parameters-set/2021-03-19
  • Without a start date, where StartDate is assigned a value of the current local time: /on-parameters-set

Note

In a component route, it isn't possible to both constrain a DateTime parameter with the route constraint datetime and make the parameter optional. Therefore, the following OnParamsSet component uses two @page directives to handle routing with and without a supplied date segment in the URL.

OnParamsSet.razor:

@page "/on-params-set"
@page "/on-params-set/{StartDate:datetime}"

<PageTitle>On Parameters Set</PageTitle>

<h1>On Parameters Set Example</h1>

<p>
    Pass a datetime in the URI of the browser's address bar. 
    For example, add <code>/1-1-2024</code> to the address.
</p>

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string? message;

    [Parameter]
    public DateTime StartDate { get; set; }

    protected override void OnParametersSet()
    {
        if (StartDate == default)
        {
            StartDate = DateTime.Now;

            message = $"No start date in URL. Default value applied " +
                $"(StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
        else
        {
            message = $"The start date in the URL was used " +
                $"(StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
    }
}
@page "/on-params-set"
@page "/on-params-set/{StartDate:datetime}"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string? message;

    [Parameter]
    public DateTime StartDate { get; set; }

    protected override void OnParametersSet()
    {
        if (StartDate == default)
        {
            StartDate = DateTime.Now;

            message = $"No start date in URL. Default value applied (StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
        else
        {
            message = $"The start date in the URL was used (StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
    }
}
@page "/on-params-set"
@page "/on-params-set/{StartDate:datetime}"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string? message;

    [Parameter]
    public DateTime StartDate { get; set; }

    protected override void OnParametersSet()
    {
        if (StartDate == default)
        {
            StartDate = DateTime.Now;

            message = $"No start date in URL. Default value applied (StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
        else
        {
            message = $"The start date in the URL was used (StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
    }
}
@page "/on-params-set"
@page "/on-params-set/{StartDate:datetime}"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string message;

    [Parameter]
    public DateTime StartDate { get; set; }

    protected override void OnParametersSet()
    {
        if (StartDate == default)
        {
            StartDate = DateTime.Now;

            message = $"No start date in URL. Default value applied (StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
        else
        {
            message = $"The start date in the URL was used (StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
    }
}
@page "/on-params-set"
@page "/on-params-set/{StartDate:datetime}"

<p>@message</p>

@code {
    private string message;

    [Parameter]
    public DateTime StartDate { get; set; }

    protected override void OnParametersSet()
    {
        if (StartDate == default)
        {
            StartDate = DateTime.Now;

            message = $"No start date in URL. Default value applied (StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
        else
        {
            message = $"The start date in the URL was used (StartDate: {StartDate}).";
        }
    }
}

Asynchronous work when applying parameters and property values must occur during the OnParametersSetAsync lifecycle event:

protected override async Task OnParametersSetAsync()
{
    await ...
}

If a custom base class is used with custom initialization logic, call OnParametersSetAsync on the base class:

protected override async Task OnParametersSetAsync()
{
    await ...

    await base.OnParametersSetAsync();
}

It isn't necessary to call ComponentBase.OnParametersSetAsync unless a custom base class is used with custom logic. For more information, see the Base class lifecycle methods section.

If event handlers are provided in developer code, unhook them on disposal. For more information, see the Component disposal with IDisposable IAsyncDisposable section.

For more information on route parameters and constraints, see ASP.NET Core Blazor routing and navigation.

For an example of implementing SetParametersAsync manually to improve performance in some scenarios, see ASP.NET Core Blazor performance best practices.

After component render (OnAfterRender{Async})

OnAfterRender and OnAfterRenderAsync are invoked after a component has rendered interactively and the UI has finished updating (for example, after elements are added to the browser DOM). Element and component references are populated at this point. Use this stage to perform additional initialization steps with the rendered content, such as JS interop calls that interact with the rendered DOM elements. The synchronous method is called prior to the asychronous method.

These methods aren't invoked during prerendering or static server-side rendering (static SSR) on the server because those processes aren't attached to a live browser DOM and are already complete before the DOM is updated.

For OnAfterRenderAsync, the component doesn't automatically rerender after the completion of any returned Task to avoid an infinite render loop.

OnAfterRender and OnAfterRenderAsync are called after a component has finished rendering. Element and component references are populated at this point. Use this stage to perform additional initialization steps with the rendered content, such as JS interop calls that interact with the rendered DOM elements. The synchronous method is called prior to the asychronous method.

These methods aren't invoked during prerendering because prerendering isn't attached to a live browser DOM and is already complete before the DOM is updated.

For OnAfterRenderAsync, the component doesn't automatically rerender after the completion of any returned Task to avoid an infinite render loop.

The firstRender parameter for OnAfterRender and OnAfterRenderAsync:

  • Is set to true the first time that the component instance is rendered.
  • Can be used to ensure that initialization work is only performed once.

AfterRender.razor:

@page "/after-render"
@inject ILogger<AfterRender> Logger 

<PageTitle>After Render</PageTitle>

<h1>After Render Example</h1>

<p>
    <button @onclick="HandleClick">Log information (and trigger a render)</button>
</p>

<p>Study logged messages in the console.</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnAfterRender(bool firstRender)
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("OnAfterRender: firstRender = {FirstRender}", firstRender);
    }

    private void HandleClick()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("HandleClick called");
    }
}
@page "/after-render"
@inject ILogger<AfterRender> Logger

<PageTitle>After Render</PageTitle>

<h1>After Render Example</h1>

<p>
    <button @onclick="HandleClick">Log information (and trigger a render)</button>
</p>

<p>Study logged messages in the console.</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnAfterRender(bool firstRender)
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("OnAfterRender: firstRender = {FirstRender}", firstRender);
    }

    private void HandleClick()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("HandleClick called");
    }
}
@page "/after-render"
@inject ILogger<AfterRender> Logger 

<PageTitle>After Render</PageTitle>

<h1>After Render Example</h1>

<p>
    <button @onclick="HandleClick">Log information (and trigger a render)</button>
</p>

<p>Study logged messages in the console.</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnAfterRender(bool firstRender)
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("OnAfterRender: firstRender = {FirstRender}", firstRender);
    }

    private void HandleClick()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("HandleClick called");
    }
}
@page "/after-render"
@using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging
@inject ILogger<AfterRender> Logger 

<h1>After Render Example</h1>

<p>
    <button @onclick="HandleClick">Log information (and trigger a render)</button>
</p>

<p>Study logged messages in the console.</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnAfterRender(bool firstRender)
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("OnAfterRender: firstRender = {FirstRender}", firstRender);
    }

    private void HandleClick()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("HandleClick called");
    }
}
@page "/after-render"
@using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging
@inject ILogger<AfterRender> Logger

<h1>After Render Example</h1>

<p>
    <button @onclick="HandleClick">Log information (and trigger a render)</button>
</p>

<p>Study logged messages in the console.</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnAfterRender(bool firstRender)
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("OnAfterRender: firstRender = {FirstRender}", firstRender);
    }

    private void HandleClick()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("HandleClick called");
    }
}

The AfterRender.razor sample produces following output to console when the page is loaded and the button is selected:

OnAfterRender: firstRender = True
HandleClick called
OnAfterRender: firstRender = False

Asynchronous work immediately after rendering must occur during the OnAfterRenderAsync lifecycle event:

protected override async Task OnAfterRenderAsync(bool firstRender)
{
    ...
}

If a custom base class is used with custom initialization logic, call OnAfterRenderAsync on the base class:

protected override async Task OnAfterRenderAsync(bool firstRender)
{
    ...

    await base.OnAfterRenderAsync(firstRender);
}

It isn't necessary to call ComponentBase.OnAfterRenderAsync unless a custom base class is used with custom logic. For more information, see the Base class lifecycle methods section.

Even if you return a Task from OnAfterRenderAsync, the framework doesn't schedule a further render cycle for your component once that task completes. This is to avoid an infinite render loop. This is different from the other lifecycle methods, which schedule a further render cycle once a returned Task completes.

OnAfterRender and OnAfterRenderAsync aren't called during the prerendering process on the server. The methods are called when the component is rendered interactively after prerendering. When the app prerenders:

  1. The component executes on the server to produce some static HTML markup in the HTTP response. During this phase, OnAfterRender and OnAfterRenderAsync aren't called.
  2. When the Blazor script (blazor.{server|webassembly|web}.js) starts in the browser, the component is restarted in an interactive rendering mode. After a component is restarted, OnAfterRender and OnAfterRenderAsync are called because the app isn't in the prerendering phase any longer.

If event handlers are provided in developer code, unhook them on disposal. For more information, see the Component disposal with IDisposable IAsyncDisposable section.

Base class lifecycle methods

When overriding Blazor's lifecycle methods, it isn't necessary to call base class lifecycle methods for ComponentBase. However, a component should call an overridden base class lifecycle method if the base class method contains logic that must be executed. Library consumers usually call base class lifecycle methods when inheriting a base class because library base classes often have custom lifecycle logic to execute. If the app uses a base class from a library, consult the library's documentation for guidance.

In the following example, base.OnInitialized(); is called to ensure that the base class's OnInitialized method is executed. Without the call, BlazorRocksBase2.OnInitialized doesn't execute.

BlazorRocks2.razor:

@page "/blazor-rocks-2"
@inherits BlazorRocksBase2
@inject ILogger<BlazorRocks2> Logger

<PageTitle>Blazor Rocks!</PageTitle>

<h1>Blazor Rocks! Example 2</h1>

<p>
    @BlazorRocksText
</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocks2 executed!");

        base.OnInitialized();
    }
}
@page "/blazor-rocks-2"
@inherits BlazorRocksBase2
@inject ILogger<BlazorRocks2> Logger

<PageTitle>Blazor Rocks!</PageTitle>

<h1>Blazor Rocks! Example 2</h1>

<p>
    @BlazorRocksText
</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocks2 executed!");

        base.OnInitialized();
    }
}
@page "/blazor-rocks-2"
@inherits BlazorRocksBase2
@inject ILogger<BlazorRocks2> Logger

<PageTitle>Blazor Rocks!</PageTitle>

<h1>Blazor Rocks! Example 2</h1>

<p>
    @BlazorRocksText
</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocks2 executed!");

        base.OnInitialized();
    }
}
@page "/blazor-rocks-2"
@using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging
@inherits BlazorRocksBase2
@inject ILogger<BlazorRocks2> Logger

<h1>Blazor Rocks! Example 2</h1>

<p>
    @BlazorRocksText
</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocks2 executed!");

        base.OnInitialized();
    }
}
@page "/blazor-rocks-2"
@using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging
@inherits BlazorRocksBase2
@inject ILogger<BlazorRocks2> Logger

<h1>Blazor Rocks! Example 2</h1>

<p>
    @BlazorRocksText
</p>

@code {
    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocks2 executed!");

        base.OnInitialized();
    }
}

BlazorRocksBase2.cs:

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components;

namespace BlazorSample;

public class BlazorRocksBase2 : ComponentBase
{
    [Inject]
    private ILogger<BlazorRocksBase2> Logger { get; set; } = default!;

    public string BlazorRocksText { get; set; } =
        "Blazor rocks the browser!";

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocksBase2 executed!");
    }
}
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components;

namespace BlazorSample;

public class BlazorRocksBase2 : ComponentBase
{
    [Inject]
    private ILogger<BlazorRocksBase2> Logger { get; set; } = default!;

    public string BlazorRocksText { get; set; } =
        "Blazor rocks the browser!";

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocksBase2 executed!");
    }
}
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components;

namespace BlazorSample;

public class BlazorRocksBase2 : ComponentBase
{
    [Inject]
    private ILogger<BlazorRocksBase2> Logger { get; set; } = default!;

    public string BlazorRocksText { get; set; } =
        "Blazor rocks the browser!";

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocksBase2 executed!");
    }
}
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;

namespace BlazorSample;

public class BlazorRocksBase2 : ComponentBase
{
    [Inject]
    private ILogger<BlazorRocksBase2> Logger { get; set; } = default!;

    public string BlazorRocksText { get; set; } =
        "Blazor rocks the browser!";

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocksBase2 executed!");
    }
}
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;

namespace BlazorSample;

public class BlazorRocksBase2 : ComponentBase
{
    [Inject]
    private ILogger<BlazorRocksBase2> Logger { get; set; } = default!;

    public string BlazorRocksText { get; set; } =
        "Blazor rocks the browser!";

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Initialization code of BlazorRocksBase2 executed!");
    }
}

State changes (StateHasChanged)

StateHasChanged notifies the component that its state has changed. When applicable, calling StateHasChanged causes the component to be rerendered.

StateHasChanged is called automatically for EventCallback methods. For more information on event callbacks, see ASP.NET Core Blazor event handling.

For more information on component rendering and when to call StateHasChanged, including when to invoke it with ComponentBase.InvokeAsync, see ASP.NET Core Razor component rendering.

Handle incomplete async actions at render

Asynchronous actions performed in lifecycle events might not have completed before the component is rendered. Objects might be null or incompletely populated with data while the lifecycle method is executing. Provide rendering logic to confirm that objects are initialized. Render placeholder UI elements (for example, a loading message) while objects are null.

In the following component, OnInitializedAsync is overridden to asynchronously provide movie rating data (movies). When movies is null, a loading message is displayed to the user. After the Task returned by OnInitializedAsync completes, the component is rerendered with the updated state.

<h1>Sci-Fi Movie Ratings</h1>

@if (movies == null)
{
    <p><em>Loading...</em></p>
}
else
{
    <ul>
        @foreach (var movie in movies)
        {
            <li>@movie.Title &mdash; @movie.Rating</li>
        }
    </ul>
}

@code {
    private Movies[]? movies;

    protected override async Task OnInitializedAsync()
    {
        movies = await GetMovieRatings(DateTime.Now);
    }
}

Handle errors

For information on handling errors during lifecycle method execution, see Handle errors in ASP.NET Core Blazor apps.

Stateful reconnection after prerendering

When prerendering on the server, a component is initially rendered statically as part of the page. Once the browser establishes a SignalR connection back to the server, the component is rendered again and interactive. If the OnInitialized{Async} lifecycle method for initializing the component is present, the method is executed twice:

  • When the component is prerendered statically.
  • After the server connection has been established.

This can result in a noticeable change in the data displayed in the UI when the component is finally rendered. To avoid this behavior, pass in an identifier to cache the state during prerendering and to retrieve the state after prerendering.

The following code demonstrates a WeatherForecastService that avoids the change in data display due to prerendering. The awaited Delay (await Task.Delay(...)) simulates a short delay before returning data from the GetForecastAsync method.

Add IMemoryCache services with AddMemoryCache on the service collection in the app's Program file:

builder.Services.AddMemoryCache();

WeatherForecastService.cs:

using Microsoft.Extensions.Caching.Memory;

namespace BlazorSample;

public class WeatherForecastService(IMemoryCache memoryCache)
{
    private static readonly string[] summaries =
    [
        "Freezing", "Bracing", "Chilly", "Cool", "Mild",
        "Warm", "Balmy", "Hot", "Sweltering", "Scorching"
    ];

    public IMemoryCache MemoryCache { get; } = memoryCache;

    public Task<WeatherForecast[]?> GetForecastAsync(DateOnly startDate)
    {
        return MemoryCache.GetOrCreateAsync(startDate, async e =>
        {
            e.SetOptions(new MemoryCacheEntryOptions
            {
                AbsoluteExpirationRelativeToNow =
                    TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30)
            });

            await Task.Delay(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10));

            return Enumerable.Range(1, 5).Select(index => new WeatherForecast
            {
                Date = startDate.AddDays(index),
                TemperatureC = Random.Shared.Next(-20, 55),
                Summary = summaries[Random.Shared.Next(summaries.Length)]
            }).ToArray();
        });
    }
}
using Microsoft.Extensions.Caching.Memory;

public class WeatherForecastService
{
    private static readonly string[] summaries = new[]
    {
        "Freezing", "Bracing", "Chilly", "Cool", "Mild",
        "Warm", "Balmy", "Hot", "Sweltering", "Scorching"
    };

    public WeatherForecastService(IMemoryCache memoryCache)
    {
        MemoryCache = memoryCache;
    }

    public IMemoryCache MemoryCache { get; }

    public Task<WeatherForecast[]?> GetForecastAsync(DateTime startDate)
    {
        return MemoryCache.GetOrCreateAsync(startDate, async e =>
        {
            e.SetOptions(new MemoryCacheEntryOptions
            {
                AbsoluteExpirationRelativeToNow =
                    TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30)
            });

            await Task.Delay(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10));

            return Enumerable.Range(1, 5).Select(index => new WeatherForecast
            {
                Date = startDate.AddDays(index),
                TemperatureC = Random.Shared.Next(-20, 55),
                Summary = summaries[Random.Shared.Next(summaries.Length)]
            }).ToArray();
        });
    }
}
using Microsoft.Extensions.Caching.Memory;

public class WeatherForecastService
{
    private static readonly string[] summaries = new[]
    {
        "Freezing", "Bracing", "Chilly", "Cool", "Mild",
        "Warm", "Balmy", "Hot", "Sweltering", "Scorching"
    };

    public WeatherForecastService(IMemoryCache memoryCache)
    {
        MemoryCache = memoryCache;
    }

    public IMemoryCache MemoryCache { get; }

    public Task<WeatherForecast[]> GetForecastAsync(DateTime startDate)
    {
        return MemoryCache.GetOrCreateAsync(startDate, async e =>
        {
            e.SetOptions(new MemoryCacheEntryOptions
            {
                AbsoluteExpirationRelativeToNow =
                    TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30)
            });

            await Task.Delay(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10));

            return Enumerable.Range(1, 5).Select(index => new WeatherForecast
            {
                Date = startDate.AddDays(index),
                TemperatureC = Random.Shared.Next(-20, 55),
                Summary = summaries[Random.Shared.Next(summaries.Length)]
            }).ToArray();
        });
    }
}
using System;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Caching.Memory;
using BlazorSample.Shared;

public class WeatherForecastService
{
    private static readonly string[] summaries = new[]
    {
        "Freezing", "Bracing", "Chilly", "Cool", "Mild",
        "Warm", "Balmy", "Hot", "Sweltering", "Scorching"
    };

    public WeatherForecastService(IMemoryCache memoryCache)
    {
        MemoryCache = memoryCache;
    }

    public IMemoryCache MemoryCache { get; }

    public Task<WeatherForecast[]> GetForecastAsync(DateTime startDate)
    {
        return MemoryCache.GetOrCreateAsync(startDate, async e =>
        {
            e.SetOptions(new MemoryCacheEntryOptions
            {
                AbsoluteExpirationRelativeToNow =
                    TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30)
            });

            var rng = new Random();

            await Task.Delay(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10));

            return Enumerable.Range(1, 5).Select(index => new WeatherForecast
            {
                Date = startDate.AddDays(index),
                TemperatureC = rng.Next(-20, 55),
                Summary = summaries[rng.Next(summaries.Length)]
            }).ToArray();
        });
    }
}
using System;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Caching.Memory;
using BlazorSample.Shared;

public class WeatherForecastService
{
    private static readonly string[] summaries = new[]
    {
        "Freezing", "Bracing", "Chilly", "Cool", "Mild",
        "Warm", "Balmy", "Hot", "Sweltering", "Scorching"
    };

    public WeatherForecastService(IMemoryCache memoryCache)
    {
        MemoryCache = memoryCache;
    }

    public IMemoryCache MemoryCache { get; }

    public Task<WeatherForecast[]> GetForecastAsync(DateTime startDate)
    {
        return MemoryCache.GetOrCreateAsync(startDate, async e =>
        {
            e.SetOptions(new MemoryCacheEntryOptions
            {
                AbsoluteExpirationRelativeToNow =
                    TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30)
            });

            var rng = new Random();

            await Task.Delay(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10));

            return Enumerable.Range(1, 5).Select(index => new WeatherForecast
            {
                Date = startDate.AddDays(index),
                TemperatureC = rng.Next(-20, 55),
                Summary = summaries[rng.Next(summaries.Length)]
            }).ToArray();
        });
    }
}

For more information on the RenderMode, see ASP.NET Core Blazor SignalR guidance.

The content in this section focuses on Blazor Web Apps and stateful SignalR reconnection. To preserve state during the execution of initialization code while prerendering, see Prerender ASP.NET Core Razor components.

Although the content in this section focuses on Blazor Server and stateful SignalR reconnection, the scenario for prerendering in hosted Blazor WebAssembly solutions (WebAssemblyPrerendered) involves similar conditions and approaches to prevent executing developer code twice. To preserve state during the execution of initialization code while prerendering, see Prerender and integrate ASP.NET Core Razor components.

Prerendering with JavaScript interop

This section applies to server-side apps that prerender Razor components. Prerendering is covered in Prerender ASP.NET Core Razor components.

Note

Internal navigation for interactive routing in Blazor Web Apps doesn't involve requesting new page content from the server. Therefore, prerendering doesn't occur for internal page requests. If the app adopts interactive routing, perform a full page reload for component examples that demonstrate prerendering behavior. For more information, see Prerender ASP.NET Core Razor components.

This section applies to server-side apps and hosted Blazor WebAssembly apps that prerender Razor components. Prerendering is covered in Prerender and integrate ASP.NET Core Razor components.

While an app is prerendering, certain actions, such as calling into JavaScript (JS), aren't possible.

For the following example, the setElementText1 function is called with JSRuntimeExtensions.InvokeVoidAsync and doesn't return a value.

Note

For general guidance on JS location and our recommendations for production apps, see JavaScript location in ASP.NET Core Blazor apps.

<script>
  window.setElementText1 = (element, text) => element.innerText = text;
</script>

Warning

The preceding example modifies the DOM directly for demonstration purposes only. Directly modifying the DOM with JS isn't recommended in most scenarios because JS can interfere with Blazor's change tracking. For more information, see ASP.NET Core Blazor JavaScript interoperability (JS interop).

The OnAfterRender{Async} lifecycle event isn't called during the prerendering process on the server. Override the OnAfterRender{Async} method to delay JS interop calls until after the component is rendered and interactive on the client after prerendering.

PrerenderedInterop1.razor:

@page "/prerendered-interop-1"
@using Microsoft.JSInterop
@inject IJSRuntime JS

<PageTitle>Prerendered Interop 1</PageTitle>

<h1>Prerendered Interop Example 1</h1>

<div @ref="divElement">Text during render</div>

@code {
    private ElementReference divElement;

    protected override async Task OnAfterRenderAsync(bool firstRender)
    {
        if (firstRender)
        {
            await JS.InvokeVoidAsync(
                "setElementText1", divElement, "Text after render");
        }
    }
}

Note

The preceding example pollutes the client with global functions. For a better approach in production apps, see JavaScript isolation in JavaScript modules.

Example:

export setElementText1 = (element, text) => element.innerText = text;

The following component demonstrates how to use JS interop as part of a component's initialization logic in a way that's compatible with prerendering. The component shows that it's possible to trigger a rendering update from inside OnAfterRenderAsync. The developer must be careful to avoid creating an infinite loop in this scenario.

For the following example, the setElementText2 function is called with IJSRuntime.InvokeAsync and returns a value.

Note

For general guidance on JS location and our recommendations for production apps, see JavaScript location in ASP.NET Core Blazor apps.

<script>
  window.setElementText2 = (element, text) => {
    element.innerText = text;
    return text;
  };
</script>

Warning

The preceding example modifies the DOM directly for demonstration purposes only. Directly modifying the DOM with JS isn't recommended in most scenarios because JS can interfere with Blazor's change tracking. For more information, see ASP.NET Core Blazor JavaScript interoperability (JS interop).

Where JSRuntime.InvokeAsync is called, the ElementReference is only used in OnAfterRenderAsync and not in any earlier lifecycle method because there's no HTML DOM element until after the component is rendered.

StateHasChanged is called to rerender the component with the new state obtained from the JS interop call (for more information, see ASP.NET Core Razor component rendering). The code doesn't create an infinite loop because StateHasChanged is only called when data is null.

PrerenderedInterop2.razor:

@page "/prerendered-interop-2"
@using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Components
@using Microsoft.JSInterop
@inject IJSRuntime JS

<PageTitle>Prerendered Interop 2</PageTitle>

<h1>Prerendered Interop Example 2</h1>

<p>
    Get value via JS interop call:
    <strong id="val-get-by-interop">@(infoFromJs ?? "No value yet")</strong>
</p>

<p>
    Set value via JS interop call: 
    <strong id="val-set-by-interop" @ref="divElement"></strong>
</p>



@code {
    private string? infoFromJs;
    private ElementReference divElement;

    protected override async Task OnAfterRenderAsync(bool firstRender)
    {
        if (firstRender && infoFromJs == null)
        {
            infoFromJs = await JS.InvokeAsync<string>(
                "setElementText2", divElement, "Hello from interop call!");

            StateHasChanged();
        }
    }
}

Note

The preceding example pollutes the client with global functions. For a better approach in production apps, see JavaScript isolation in JavaScript modules.

Example:

export setElementText2 = (element, text) => {
  element.innerText = text;
  return text;
};

Component disposal with IDisposable and IAsyncDisposable

If a component implements IDisposable, IAsyncDisposable, or both, the framework calls for resource disposal when the component is removed from the UI. Disposal can occur at any time, including during component initialization.

Components shouldn't need to implement IDisposable and IAsyncDisposable simultaneously. If both are implemented, the framework only executes the asynchronous overload.

Developer code must ensure that IAsyncDisposable implementations don't take a long time to complete.

Disposal of JavaScript interop object references

Examples throughout the JavaScript (JS) interop articles demonstrate typical object disposal patterns:

JS interop object references are implemented as a map keyed by an identifier on the side of the JS interop call that creates the reference. When object disposal is initiated from either the .NET or JS side, Blazor removes the entry from the map, and the object can be garbage collected as long as no other strong reference to the object is present.

At a minimum, always dispose objects created on the .NET side to avoid leaking .NET managed memory.

DOM cleanup tasks during component disposal

For more information, see ASP.NET Core Blazor JavaScript interoperability (JS interop).

For guidance on JSDisconnectedException when a circuit is disconnected, see ASP.NET Core Blazor JavaScript interoperability (JS interop). For general JavaScript interop error handling guidance, see the JavaScript interop section in Handle errors in ASP.NET Core Blazor apps.

Synchronous IDisposable

For synchronous disposal tasks, use IDisposable.Dispose.

The following component:

  • Implements IDisposable with the @implements Razor directive.
  • Disposes of obj, which is a type that implements IDisposable.
  • A null check is performed because obj is created in a lifecycle method (not shown).
@implements IDisposable

...

@code {
    ...

    public void Dispose()
    {
        obj?.Dispose();
    }
}

If a single object requires disposal, a lambda can be used to dispose of the object when Dispose is called. The following example appears in the ASP.NET Core Razor component rendering article and demonstrates the use of a lambda expression for the disposal of a Timer.

TimerDisposal1.razor:

@page "/timer-disposal-1"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<PageTitle>Timer Disposal 1</PageTitle>

<h1>Timer Disposal Example 1</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer timer = new(1000);

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer.Dispose();
}

CounterWithTimerDisposal1.razor:

@page "/counter-with-timer-disposal-1"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<h1>Counter with <code>Timer</code> disposal</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer timer = new(1000);

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer.Dispose();
}

CounterWithTimerDisposal1.razor:

@page "/counter-with-timer-disposal-1"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<h1>Counter with <code>Timer</code> disposal</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer timer = new(1000);

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer.Dispose();
}

CounterWithTimerDisposal1.razor:

@page "/counter-with-timer-disposal-1"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<h1>Counter with <code>Timer</code> disposal</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer timer = new(1000);

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer.Dispose();
}

CounterWithTimerDisposal1.razor:

@page "/counter-with-timer-disposal-1"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<h1>Counter with <code>Timer</code> disposal</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer timer = new Timer(1000);

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer.Dispose();
}

Note

In the preceding example, the call to StateHasChanged is wrapped by a call to ComponentBase.InvokeAsync because the callback is invoked outside of Blazor's synchronization context. For more information, see ASP.NET Core Razor component rendering.

If the object is created in a lifecycle method, such as OnInitialized{Async}, check for null before calling Dispose.

TimerDisposal2.razor:

@page "/timer-disposal-2"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<PageTitle>Timer Disposal 2</PageTitle>

<h1>Timer Disposal Example 2</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer? timer;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer = new Timer(1000);
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer?.Dispose();
}

CounterWithTimerDisposal2.razor:

@page "/counter-with-timer-disposal-2"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<h1>Counter with <code>Timer</code> disposal</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer? timer;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer = new Timer(1000);
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer?.Dispose();
}

CounterWithTimerDisposal2.razor:

@page "/counter-with-timer-disposal-2"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<h1>Counter with <code>Timer</code> disposal</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer? timer;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer = new Timer(1000);
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer?.Dispose();
}

CounterWithTimerDisposal2.razor:

@page "/counter-with-timer-disposal-2"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<h1>Counter with <code>Timer</code> disposal</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer timer;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer = new Timer(1000);
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer?.Dispose();
}

CounterWithTimerDisposal2.razor:

@page "/counter-with-timer-disposal-2"
@using System.Timers
@implements IDisposable

<h1>Counter with <code>Timer</code> disposal</h1>

<p>Current count: @currentCount</p>

@code {
    private int currentCount = 0;
    private Timer timer;

    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        timer = new Timer(1000);
        timer.Elapsed += (sender, eventArgs) => OnTimerCallback();
        timer.Start();
    }

    private void OnTimerCallback()
    {
        _ = InvokeAsync(() =>
        {
            currentCount++;
            StateHasChanged();
        });
    }

    public void Dispose() => timer?.Dispose();
}

For more information, see:

Asynchronous IAsyncDisposable

For asynchronous disposal tasks, use IAsyncDisposable.DisposeAsync.

The following component:

  • Implements IAsyncDisposable with the @implements Razor directive.
  • Disposes of obj, which is an unmanaged type that implements IAsyncDisposable.
  • A null check is performed because obj is created in a lifecycle method (not shown).
@implements IAsyncDisposable

...

@code {
    ...

    public async ValueTask DisposeAsync()
    {
        if (obj is not null)
        {
            await obj.DisposeAsync();
        }
    }
}

For more information, see:

Assignment of null to disposed objects

Usually, there's no need to assign null to disposed objects after calling Dispose/DisposeAsync. Rare cases for assigning null include the following:

  • If the object's type is poorly implemented and doesn't tolerate repeat calls to Dispose/DisposeAsync, assign null after disposal to gracefully skip further calls to Dispose/DisposeAsync.
  • If a long-lived process continues to hold a reference to a disposed object, assigning null allows the garbage collector to free the object in spite of the long-lived process holding a reference to it.

These are unusual scenarios. For objects that are implemented correctly and behave normally, there's no point in assigning null to disposed objects. In the rare cases where an object must be assigned null, we recommend documenting the reason and seeking a solution that prevents the need to assign null.

StateHasChanged

Note

Calling StateHasChanged in Dispose and DisposeAsync isn't supported. StateHasChanged might be invoked as part of tearing down the renderer, so requesting UI updates at that point isn't supported.

Event handlers

Always unsubscribe event handlers from .NET events. The following Blazor form examples show how to unsubscribe an event handler in the Dispose method:

  • Private field and lambda approach

    @implements IDisposable
    
    <EditForm ... EditContext="editContext" ...>
        ...
        <button type="submit" disabled="@formInvalid">Submit</button>
    </EditForm>
    
    @code {
        ...
    
        private EventHandler<FieldChangedEventArgs>? fieldChanged;
    
        protected override void OnInitialized()
        {
            editContext = new(model);
    
            fieldChanged = (_, __) =>
            {
                ...
            };
    
            editContext.OnFieldChanged += fieldChanged;
        }
    
        public void Dispose()
        {
            editContext.OnFieldChanged -= fieldChanged;
        }
    }
    
  • Private method approach

    @implements IDisposable
    
    <EditForm ... EditContext="editContext" ...>
        ...
        <button type="submit" disabled="@formInvalid">Submit</button>
    </EditForm>
    
    @code {
        ...
    
        protected override void OnInitialized()
        {
            editContext = new(model);
            editContext.OnFieldChanged += HandleFieldChanged;
        }
    
        private void HandleFieldChanged(object sender, FieldChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            ...
        }
    
        public void Dispose()
        {
            editContext.OnFieldChanged -= HandleFieldChanged;
        }
    }
    

For more information, see the Component disposal with IDisposable and IAsyncDisposable section.

For more information on the EditForm component and forms, see ASP.NET Core Blazor forms overview and the other forms articles in the Forms node.

Anonymous functions, methods, and expressions

When anonymous functions, methods, or expressions, are used, it isn't necessary to implement IDisposable and unsubscribe delegates. However, failing to unsubscribe a delegate is a problem when the object exposing the event outlives the lifetime of the component registering the delegate. When this occurs, a memory leak results because the registered delegate keeps the original object alive. Therefore, only use the following approaches when you know that the event delegate disposes quickly. When in doubt about the lifetime of objects that require disposal, subscribe a delegate method and properly dispose the delegate as the earlier examples show.

  • Anonymous lambda method approach (explicit disposal not required):

    private void HandleFieldChanged(object sender, FieldChangedEventArgs e)
    {
        formInvalid = !editContext.Validate();
        StateHasChanged();
    }
    
    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        editContext = new(starship);
        editContext.OnFieldChanged += (s, e) => HandleFieldChanged((editContext)s, e);
    }
    
  • Anonymous lambda expression approach (explicit disposal not required):

    private ValidationMessageStore? messageStore;
    
    [CascadingParameter]
    private EditContext? CurrentEditContext { get; set; }
    
    protected override void OnInitialized()
    {
        ...
    
        messageStore = new(CurrentEditContext);
    
        CurrentEditContext.OnValidationRequested += (s, e) => messageStore.Clear();
        CurrentEditContext.OnFieldChanged += (s, e) => 
            messageStore.Clear(e.FieldIdentifier);
    }
    

    The full example of the preceding code with anonymous lambda expressions appears in the ASP.NET Core Blazor forms validation article.

For more information, see Cleaning up unmanaged resources and the topics that follow it on implementing the Dispose and DisposeAsync methods.

Cancelable background work

Components often perform long-running background work, such as making network calls (HttpClient) and interacting with databases. It's desirable to stop the background work to conserve system resources in several situations. For example, background asynchronous operations don't automatically stop when a user navigates away from a component.

Other reasons why background work items might require cancellation include:

  • An executing background task was started with faulty input data or processing parameters.
  • The current set of executing background work items must be replaced with a new set of work items.
  • The priority of currently executing tasks must be changed.
  • The app must be shut down for server redeployment.
  • Server resources become limited, necessitating the rescheduling of background work items.

To implement a cancelable background work pattern in a component:

In the following example:

  • await Task.Delay(5000, cts.Token); represents long-running asynchronous background work.
  • BackgroundResourceMethod represents a long-running background method that shouldn't start if the Resource is disposed before the method is called.

BackgroundWork.razor:

@page "/background-work"
@implements IDisposable
@inject ILogger<BackgroundWork> Logger

<PageTitle>Background Work</PageTitle>

<h1>Background Work Example</h1>

<p>
    <button @onclick="LongRunningWork">Trigger long running work</button>
    <button @onclick="Dispose">Trigger Disposal</button>
</p>
<p>Study logged messages in the console.</p>
<p>
    If you trigger disposal within 10 seconds of page load, the 
    <code>BackgroundResourceMethod</code> isn't executed.
</p>
<p>
    If disposal occurs after <code>BackgroundResourceMethod</code> is called but before action
    is taken on the resource, an <code>ObjectDisposedException</code> is thrown by 
    <code>BackgroundResourceMethod</code>, and the resource isn't processed.
</p>

@code {
    private Resource resource = new();
    private CancellationTokenSource cts = new();
    private IList<string> messages = [];

    protected async Task LongRunningWork()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Long running work started");

        await Task.Delay(10000, cts.Token);

        cts.Token.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();
        resource.BackgroundResourceMethod(Logger);
    }

    public void Dispose()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Executing Dispose");

        if (!cts.IsCancellationRequested)
        {
            cts.Cancel();
        }
        
        cts?.Dispose();
        resource?.Dispose();
    }

    private class Resource : IDisposable
    {
        private bool disposed;

        public void BackgroundResourceMethod(ILogger<BackgroundWork> logger)
        {
            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Start method");

            if (disposed)
            {
                logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Disposed");
                throw new ObjectDisposedException(nameof(Resource));
            }

            // Take action on the Resource

            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Action on Resource");
        }

        public void Dispose() => disposed = true;
    }
}
@page "/background-work"
@using System.Threading
@using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging
@implements IDisposable
@inject ILogger<BackgroundWork> Logger

<button @onclick="LongRunningWork">Trigger long running work</button>
<button @onclick="Dispose">Trigger Disposal</button>

@code {
    private Resource resource = new();
    private CancellationTokenSource cts = new();

    protected async Task LongRunningWork()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Long running work started");

        await Task.Delay(5000, cts.Token);

        cts.Token.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();
        resource.BackgroundResourceMethod(Logger);
    }

    public void Dispose()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Executing Dispose");
        cts.Cancel();
        cts.Dispose();
        resource?.Dispose();
    }

    private class Resource : IDisposable
    {
        private bool disposed;

        public void BackgroundResourceMethod(ILogger<BackgroundWork> logger)
        {
            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Start method");

            if (disposed)
            {
                logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Disposed");
                throw new ObjectDisposedException(nameof(Resource));
            }

            // Take action on the Resource

            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Action on Resource");
        }

        public void Dispose()
        {
            disposed = true;
        }
    }
}
@page "/background-work"
@using System.Threading
@using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging
@implements IDisposable
@inject ILogger<BackgroundWork> Logger

<button @onclick="LongRunningWork">Trigger long running work</button>
<button @onclick="Dispose">Trigger Disposal</button>

@code {
    private Resource resource = new();
    private CancellationTokenSource cts = new();

    protected async Task LongRunningWork()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Long running work started");

        await Task.Delay(5000, cts.Token);

        cts.Token.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();
        resource.BackgroundResourceMethod(Logger);
    }

    public void Dispose()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Executing Dispose");
        cts.Cancel();
        cts.Dispose();
        resource?.Dispose();
    }

    private class Resource : IDisposable
    {
        private bool disposed;

        public void BackgroundResourceMethod(ILogger<BackgroundWork> logger)
        {
            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Start method");

            if (disposed)
            {
                logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Disposed");
                throw new ObjectDisposedException(nameof(Resource));
            }

            // Take action on the Resource

            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Action on Resource");
        }

        public void Dispose()
        {
            disposed = true;
        }
    }
}
@page "/background-work"
@using System.Threading
@using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging
@implements IDisposable
@inject ILogger<BackgroundWork> Logger

<button @onclick="LongRunningWork">Trigger long running work</button>
<button @onclick="Dispose">Trigger Disposal</button>

@code {
    private Resource resource = new();
    private CancellationTokenSource cts = new();

    protected async Task LongRunningWork()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Long running work started");

        await Task.Delay(5000, cts.Token);

        cts.Token.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();
        resource.BackgroundResourceMethod(Logger);
    }

    public void Dispose()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Executing Dispose");
        cts.Cancel();
        cts.Dispose();
        resource?.Dispose();
    }

    private class Resource : IDisposable
    {
        private bool disposed;

        public void BackgroundResourceMethod(ILogger<BackgroundWork> logger)
        {
            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Start method");

            if (disposed)
            {
                logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Disposed");
                throw new ObjectDisposedException(nameof(Resource));
            }

            // Take action on the Resource

            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Action on Resource");
        }

        public void Dispose()
        {
            disposed = true;
        }
    }
}
@page "/background-work"
@using System.Threading
@using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging
@implements IDisposable
@inject ILogger<BackgroundWork> Logger

<button @onclick="LongRunningWork">Trigger long running work</button>
<button @onclick="Dispose">Trigger Disposal</button>

@code {
    private Resource resource = new Resource();
    private CancellationTokenSource cts = new CancellationTokenSource();

    protected async Task LongRunningWork()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Long running work started");

        await Task.Delay(5000, cts.Token);

        cts.Token.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();
        resource.BackgroundResourceMethod(Logger);
    }

    public void Dispose()
    {
        Logger.LogInformation("Executing Dispose");
        cts.Cancel();
        cts.Dispose();
        resource?.Dispose();
    }

    private class Resource : IDisposable
    {
        private bool disposed;

        public void BackgroundResourceMethod(ILogger<BackgroundWork> logger)
        {
            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Start method");

            if (disposed)
            {
                logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Disposed");
                throw new ObjectDisposedException(nameof(Resource));
            }

            // Take action on the Resource

            logger.LogInformation("BackgroundResourceMethod: Action on Resource");
        }

        public void Dispose()
        {
            disposed = true;
        }
    }
}

Blazor Server reconnection events

The component lifecycle events covered in this article operate separately from server-side reconnection event handlers. When the SignalR connection to the client is lost, only UI updates are interrupted. UI updates are resumed when the connection is re-established. For more information on circuit handler events and configuration, see ASP.NET Core Blazor SignalR guidance.

Additional resources

Handle caught exceptions outside of a Razor component's lifecycle