Mapping, customizing, and transforming claims in ASP.NET Core

By Damien Bowden

Claims can be created from any user or identity data which can be issued using a trusted identity provider or ASP.NET Core identity. A claim is a name value pair that represents what the subject is, not what the subject can do. This article covers the following areas:

  • How to configure and map claims using an OpenID Connect client
  • Set the name and role claim
  • Reset the claims namespaces
  • Customize, extend the claims using TransformAsync

Mapping claims using OpenID Connect authentication

The profile claims can be returned in the id_token, which is returned after a successful authentication. The ASP.NET Core client app only requires the profile scope. When using the id_token for claims, no extra claims mapping is required.

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.Cookies;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.OpenIdConnect;

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);

builder.Services.AddRazorPages();

builder.Services.AddAuthentication(options =>
{
    options.DefaultScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
    options.DefaultChallengeScheme = OpenIdConnectDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
})
   .AddCookie()
   .AddOpenIdConnect(options =>
   {
       options.SignInScheme = "Cookies";
       options.Authority = "-your-identity-provider-";
       options.RequireHttpsMetadata = true;
       options.ClientId = "-your-clientid-";
       options.ClientSecret = "-your-client-secret-from-user-secrets-or-keyvault";
       options.ResponseType = "code";
       options.UsePkce = true;
       options.Scope.Add("profile");
       options.SaveTokens = true;
   });

var app = builder.Build();

if (!app.Environment.IsDevelopment())
{
    app.UseExceptionHandler("/Error");
    app.UseHsts();
}

app.UseHttpsRedirection();
app.UseStaticFiles();

app.UseAuthentication();
app.UseAuthorization();

app.MapRazorPages();

app.Run();

The preceding code requires the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.OpenIdConnect NuGet package.

Another way to get the user claims is to use the OpenID Connect User Info API. The ASP.NET Core client app uses the GetClaimsFromUserInfoEndpoint property to configure this. One important difference from the first settings, is that you must specify the claims you require using the MapUniqueJsonKey method, otherwise only the name, given_name and email standard claims will be available in the client app. The claims included in the id_token are mapped per default. This is the major difference to the first option. You must explicitly define some of the claims you require.

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.Cookies;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.OpenIdConnect;

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);

builder.Services.AddRazorPages();

builder.Services.AddAuthentication(options =>
{
    options.DefaultScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
    options.DefaultChallengeScheme = OpenIdConnectDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
})
   .AddCookie()
   .AddOpenIdConnect(options =>
   {
       options.SignInScheme = "Cookies";
       options.Authority = "-your-identity-provider-";
       options.RequireHttpsMetadata = true;
       options.ClientId = "-your-clientid-";
       options.ClientSecret = "-client-secret-from-user-secrets-or-keyvault";
       options.ResponseType = "code";
       options.UsePkce = true;
       options.Scope.Add("profile");
       options.SaveTokens = true;
       options.GetClaimsFromUserInfoEndpoint = true;
       options.ClaimActions.MapUniqueJsonKey("preferred_username",
                                             "preferred_username");
       options.ClaimActions.MapUniqueJsonKey("gender", "gender");
   });

var app = builder.Build();

// Code removed for brevity.

Name claim and role claim mapping

The Name claim and the Role claim are mapped to default properties in the ASP.NET Core HTTP context. Sometimes it is required to use different claims for the default properties, or the name claim and the role claim do not match the default values. The claims can be mapped using the TokenValidationParameters property and set to any claim as required. The values from the claims can be used directly in the HttpContext User.Identity.Name property and the roles.

If the User.Identity.Name has no value or the roles are missing, please check the values in the returned claims and set the NameClaimType and the RoleClaimType values. The returned claims from the client authentication can be viewed in the HTTP context.

builder.Services.AddAuthentication(options =>
{
    options.DefaultScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
    options.DefaultChallengeScheme = OpenIdConnectDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
})
  .AddCookie()
  .AddOpenIdConnect(options =>
  {
       // Other options...
       options.TokenValidationParameters = new TokenValidationParameters
      {
          NameClaimType = "email"
       //, RoleClaimType = "role"
       };
  });

Claims namespaces, default namespaces

ASP.NET Core adds default namespaces to some known claims, which might not be required in the app. Optionally, disable these added namespaces and use the exact claims that the OpenID Connect server created.

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);

builder.Services.AddRazorPages();

JwtSecurityTokenHandler.DefaultInboundClaimTypeMap.Clear();

builder.Services.AddAuthentication(options =>
{
    options.DefaultScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
    options.DefaultChallengeScheme = OpenIdConnectDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
})
   .AddCookie()
   .AddOpenIdConnect(options =>
   {
       options.SignInScheme = "Cookies";
       options.Authority = "-your-identity-provider-";
       options.RequireHttpsMetadata = true;
       options.ClientId = "-your-clientid-";
       options.ClientSecret = "-your-client-secret-from-user-secrets-or-keyvault";
       options.ResponseType = "code";
       options.UsePkce = true;
       options.Scope.Add("profile");
       options.SaveTokens = true;
   });

var app = builder.Build();

// Code removed for brevity.

Extend or add custom claims using IClaimsTransformation

The IClaimsTransformation interface can be used to add extra claims to the ClaimsPrincipal class. The interface requires a single method TransformAsync. This method might get called multiple times. Only add a new claim if it does not already exist in the ClaimsPrincipal. A ClaimsIdentity is created to add the new claims and this can be added to the ClaimsPrincipal.

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication;
using System.Security.Claims;

public class MyClaimsTransformation : IClaimsTransformation
{
    public Task<ClaimsPrincipal> TransformAsync(ClaimsPrincipal principal)
    {
        ClaimsIdentity claimsIdentity = new ClaimsIdentity();
        var claimType = "myNewClaim";
        if (!principal.HasClaim(claim => claim.Type == claimType))
        {
            claimsIdentity.AddClaim(new Claim(claimType, "myClaimValue"));
        }

        principal.AddIdentity(claimsIdentity);
        return Task.FromResult(principal);
    }
}

The IClaimsTransformation interface and the MyClaimsTransformation class can be registered as a service:

builder.Services.AddTransient<IClaimsTransformation, MyClaimsTransformation>();

Map claims from external identity providers

Refer to the following document:

Persist additional claims and tokens from external providers in ASP.NET Core

Claims can be created from any user or identity data which can be issued using a trusted identity provider or ASP.NET Core identity. A claim is a name value pair that represents what the subject is, not what the subject can do. This article covers the following areas:

  • How to configure and map claims using an OpenID Connect client
  • Set the name and role claim
  • Reset the claims namespaces
  • Customize, extend the claims using TransformAsync

Mapping claims using OpenID Connect authentication

The profile claims can be returned in the id_token, which is returned after a successful authentication. The ASP.NET Core client app only requires the profile scope. When using the id_token for claims, no extra claims mapping is required.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddAuthentication(options =>
    {
        options.DefaultScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
        options.DefaultChallengeScheme = OpenIdConnectDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
    })
   .AddCookie()
   .AddOpenIdConnect(options =>
   {
       options.SignInScheme = "Cookies";
       options.Authority = "-your-identity-provider-";
       options.RequireHttpsMetadata = true;
       options.ClientId = "-your-clientid-";
       options.ClientSecret = "-your-client-secret-from-user-secrets-or-keyvault";
       options.ResponseType = "code";
       options.UsePkce = true;
       options.Scope.Add("profile");
       options.SaveTokens = true;
   });

Another way to get the user claims is to use the OpenID Connect User Info API. The ASP.NET Core client application uses the GetClaimsFromUserInfoEndpoint property to configure this. One important difference from the first settings, is that you must specify the claims you require using the MapUniqueJsonKey method, otherwise only the name, given_name and email standard claims will be available in the client application. The claims included in the id_token are mapped per default. This is the major difference to the first option. You must explicitly define some of the claims you require.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddAuthentication(options =>
    {
        options.DefaultScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
        options.DefaultChallengeScheme = OpenIdConnectDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
    })
   .AddCookie()
   .AddOpenIdConnect(options =>
   {
       options.SignInScheme = "Cookies";
       options.Authority = "-your-identity-provider-";
       options.RequireHttpsMetadata = true;
       options.ClientId = "-your-clientid-";
       options.ClientSecret = "-your-client-secret-from-user-secrets-or-keyvault";
       options.ResponseType = "code";
       options.UsePkce = true;
       options.Scope.Add("profile");
       options.SaveTokens = true;
       options.GetClaimsFromUserInfoEndpoint = true;
       options.ClaimActions.MapUniqueJsonKey("preferred_username", "preferred_username");
       options.ClaimActions.MapUniqueJsonKey("gender", "gender");
   }); 

Name claim and role claim mapping

The Name claim and the Role claim are mapped to default properties in the ASP.NET Core HTTP context. Sometimes it is required to use different claims for the default properties, or the name claim and the role claim do not match the default values. The claims can be mapped using the TokenValidationParameters property and set to any claim as required. The values from the claims can be used directly in the HttpContext User.Identity.Name property and the roles.

If the User.Identity.Name has no value or the roles are missing, please check the values in the returned claims and set the NameClaimType and the RoleClaimType values. The returned claims from the client authentication can be viewed in the HTTP context.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddAuthentication(options =>
    {
        options.DefaultScheme = CookieAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
        options.DefaultChallengeScheme = OpenIdConnectDefaults.AuthenticationScheme;
    })
   .AddCookie()
   .AddOpenIdConnect(options =>
   {
       // other options...
       options.TokenValidationParameters = new TokenValidationParameters
       {
         NameClaimType = "email", 
         // RoleClaimType = "role"
       };
   });

Claims namespaces, default namespaces

ASP.NET Core adds default namespaces to some known claims, which might not be required in the app. Optionally, disable these added namespaces and use the exact claims that the OpenID Connect server created.

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app)
{
    JwtSecurityTokenHandler.DefaultInboundClaimTypeMap.Clear();

Extend or add custom claims using IClaimsTransformation

The IClaimsTransformation interface can be used to add extra claims to the ClaimsPrincipal class. The interface requires a single method TransformAsync. This method might get called multiple times. Only add a new claim if it does not already exist in the ClaimsPrincipal. A ClaimsIdentity is created to add the new claims and this can be added to the ClaimsPrincipal.

public class MyClaimsTransformation : IClaimsTransformation
{
    public Task<ClaimsPrincipal> TransformAsync(ClaimsPrincipal principal)
    {
       ClaimsIdentity claimsIdentity = new ClaimsIdentity();
       var claimType = "myNewClaim";
       if (!principal.HasClaim(claim => claim.Type == claimType))
       {		   
          claimsIdentity.AddClaim(new Claim(claimType, "myClaimValue"));
       }

       principal.AddIdentity(claimsIdentity);
       return Task.FromResult(principal);
    }
}

The IClaimsTransformation interface and the MyClaimsTransformation class can be added in the ConfigureServices method as a service.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddTransient<IClaimsTransformation, MyClaimsTransformation>();

Extend or add custom claims in ASP.NET Core Identity

Refer to the following document:

Add claims to Identity using IUserClaimsPrincipalFactory

Map claims from external identity providers

Refer to the following document:

Persist additional claims and tokens from external providers in ASP.NET Core