Quickstart: Deploy an Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) cluster using Bicep

Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) is a managed Kubernetes service that lets you quickly deploy and manage clusters. In this quickstart, you'll:

  • Deploy an AKS cluster using a Bicep file.
  • Run a sample multi-container application with a web front-end and a Redis instance in the cluster.

Screenshot of browsing to Azure Vote sample application.

Bicep is a domain-specific language (DSL) that uses declarative syntax to deploy Azure resources. It provides concise syntax, reliable type safety, and support for code reuse. Bicep offers the best authoring experience for your infrastructure-as-code solutions in Azure.

This quickstart assumes a basic understanding of Kubernetes concepts. For more information, see Kubernetes core concepts for Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS).

Prerequisites

If you don't have an Azure subscription, create an Azure free account before you begin.

  • This article requires version 2.20.0 or later of the Azure CLI. If using Azure Cloud Shell, the latest version is already installed.
  • To create an AKS cluster using a Bicep file, you provide an SSH public key. If you need this resource, see the following section; otherwise skip to the Review the Bicep file section.

  • The identity you're using to create your cluster has the appropriate minimum permissions. For more details on access and identity for AKS, see Access and identity options for Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS).

  • To deploy a Bicep file, you need write access on the resources you're deploying and access to all operations on the Microsoft.Resources/deployments resource type. For example, to deploy a virtual machine, you need Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/write and Microsoft.Resources/deployments/* permissions. For a list of roles and permissions, see Azure built-in roles.

Create an SSH key pair

To access AKS nodes, you connect using an SSH key pair (public and private), which you generate using the ssh-keygen command. By default, these files are created in the ~/.ssh directory. Running the ssh-keygen command will overwrite any SSH key pair with the same name already existing in the given location.

  1. Go to https://shell.azure.com to open Cloud Shell in your browser.

  2. Run the ssh-keygen command. The following example creates an SSH key pair using RSA encryption and a bit length of 4096:

    ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096
    

For more information about creating SSH keys, see Create and manage SSH keys for authentication in Azure.

Review the Bicep file

The Bicep file used in this quickstart is from Azure Quickstart Templates.

@description('The name of the Managed Cluster resource.')
param clusterName string = 'aks101cluster'

@description('The location of the Managed Cluster resource.')
param location string = resourceGroup().location

@description('Optional DNS prefix to use with hosted Kubernetes API server FQDN.')
param dnsPrefix string

@description('Disk size (in GB) to provision for each of the agent pool nodes. This value ranges from 0 to 1023. Specifying 0 will apply the default disk size for that agentVMSize.')
@minValue(0)
@maxValue(1023)
param osDiskSizeGB int = 0

@description('The number of nodes for the cluster.')
@minValue(1)
@maxValue(50)
param agentCount int = 3

@description('The size of the Virtual Machine.')
param agentVMSize string = 'standard_d2s_v3'

@description('User name for the Linux Virtual Machines.')
param linuxAdminUsername string

@description('Configure all linux machines with the SSH RSA public key string. Your key should include three parts, for example \'ssh-rsa AAAAB...snip...UcyupgH azureuser@linuxvm\'')
param sshRSAPublicKey string

resource aks 'Microsoft.ContainerService/managedClusters@2022-05-02-preview' = {
  name: clusterName
  location: location
  identity: {
    type: 'SystemAssigned'
  }
  properties: {
    dnsPrefix: dnsPrefix
    agentPoolProfiles: [
      {
        name: 'agentpool'
        osDiskSizeGB: osDiskSizeGB
        count: agentCount
        vmSize: agentVMSize
        osType: 'Linux'
        mode: 'System'
      }
    ]
    linuxProfile: {
      adminUsername: linuxAdminUsername
      ssh: {
        publicKeys: [
          {
            keyData: sshRSAPublicKey
          }
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}

output controlPlaneFQDN string = aks.properties.fqdn

The resource defined in the Bicep file:

For more AKS samples, see the AKS quickstart templates site.

Deploy the Bicep file

  1. Save the Bicep file as main.bicep to your local computer.

  2. Deploy the Bicep file using either Azure CLI or Azure PowerShell.

    az group create --name myResourceGroup --location eastus
    az deployment group create --resource-group myResourceGroup --template-file main.bicep --parameters clusterName=<cluster-name> dnsPrefix=<dns-previs> linuxAdminUsername=<linux-admin-username> sshRSAPublicKey='<ssh-key>'
    

    Provide the following values in the commands:

    • Cluster name: Enter a unique name for the AKS cluster, such as myAKSCluster.
    • DNS prefix: Enter a unique DNS prefix for your cluster, such as myakscluster.
    • Linux Admin Username: Enter a username to connect using SSH, such as azureuser.
    • SSH RSA Public Key: Copy and paste the public part of your SSH key pair (by default, the contents of ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub).

    It takes a few minutes to create the AKS cluster. Wait for the cluster to be successfully deployed before you move on to the next step.

Validate the Bicep deployment

Connect to the cluster

To manage a Kubernetes cluster, use the Kubernetes command-line client, kubectl. kubectl is already installed if you use Azure Cloud Shell.

  1. Install kubectl locally using the az aks install-cli command:

    az aks install-cli
    
  2. Configure kubectl to connect to your Kubernetes cluster using the az aks get-credentials command. This command downloads credentials and configures the Kubernetes CLI to use them.

    az aks get-credentials --resource-group myResourceGroup --name myAKSCluster
    
  3. Verify the connection to your cluster using the kubectl get command. This command returns a list of the cluster nodes.

    kubectl get nodes
    

    The following output example shows the three nodes created in the previous steps. Make sure the node status is Ready:

    NAME                       STATUS   ROLES   AGE     VERSION
    aks-agentpool-41324942-0   Ready    agent   6m44s   v1.12.6
    aks-agentpool-41324942-1   Ready    agent   6m46s   v1.12.6
    aks-agentpool-41324942-2   Ready    agent   6m45s   v1.12.6
    

Deploy the application

A Kubernetes manifest file defines a cluster's desired state, such as which container images to run.

In this quickstart, you'll use a manifest to create all objects needed to run the Azure Vote application. This manifest includes two Kubernetes deployments:

  • The sample Azure Vote Python applications.
  • A Redis instance.

Two Kubernetes Services are also created:

  • An internal service for the Redis instance.
  • An external service to access the Azure Vote application from the internet.
  1. Create a file named azure-vote.yaml.

    • If you use the Azure Cloud Shell, this file can be created using code, vi, or nano as if working on a virtual or physical system
  2. Copy in the following YAML definition:

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: azure-vote-back
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: azure-vote-back
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            app: azure-vote-back
        spec:
          nodeSelector:
            "kubernetes.io/os": linux
          containers:
          - name: azure-vote-back
            image: mcr.microsoft.com/oss/bitnami/redis:6.0.8
            env:
            - name: ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD
              value: "yes"
            resources:
              requests:
                cpu: 100m
                memory: 128Mi
              limits:
                cpu: 250m
                memory: 256Mi
            ports:
            - containerPort: 6379
              name: redis
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: azure-vote-back
    spec:
      ports:
      - port: 6379
      selector:
        app: azure-vote-back
    ---
    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
      name: azure-vote-front
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app: azure-vote-front
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            app: azure-vote-front
        spec:
          nodeSelector:
            "kubernetes.io/os": linux
          containers:
          - name: azure-vote-front
            image: mcr.microsoft.com/azuredocs/azure-vote-front:v1
            resources:
              requests:
                cpu: 100m
                memory: 128Mi
              limits:
                cpu: 250m
                memory: 256Mi
            ports:
            - containerPort: 80
            env:
            - name: REDIS
              value: "azure-vote-back"
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: azure-vote-front
    spec:
      type: LoadBalancer
      ports:
      - port: 80
      selector:
        app: azure-vote-front
    

    For a breakdown of YAML manifest files, see Deployments and YAML manifests.

  3. Deploy the application using the kubectl apply command and specify the name of your YAML manifest:

    kubectl apply -f azure-vote.yaml
    

    The following example resembles output showing the successfully created deployments and services:

    deployment "azure-vote-back" created
    service "azure-vote-back" created
    deployment "azure-vote-front" created
    service "azure-vote-front" created
    

Test the application

When the application runs, a Kubernetes service exposes the application front end to the internet. This process can take a few minutes to complete.

Monitor progress using the kubectl get service command with the --watch argument.

kubectl get service azure-vote-front --watch

The EXTERNAL-IP output for the azure-vote-front service will initially show as pending.

NAME               TYPE           CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE
azure-vote-front   LoadBalancer   10.0.37.27   <pending>     80:30572/TCP   6s

Once the EXTERNAL-IP address changes from pending to an actual public IP address, use CTRL-C to stop the kubectl watch process. The following example output shows a valid public IP address assigned to the service:

azure-vote-front   LoadBalancer   10.0.37.27   52.179.23.131   80:30572/TCP   2m

To see the Azure Vote app in action, open a web browser to the external IP address of your service.

Screenshot of browsing to Azure Vote sample application.

Clean up resources

To avoid Azure charges, if you don't plan on going through the tutorials that follow, clean up your unnecessary resources. Use the az group delete command to remove the resource group, container service, and all related resources.

az group delete --name myResourceGroup --yes --no-wait

Note

In this quickstart, the AKS cluster was created with a system-assigned managed identity (the default identity option). This identity is managed by the platform and does not require removal.

Next steps

In this quickstart, you deployed a Kubernetes cluster and then deployed a sample multi-container application to it.

To learn more about AKS, and walk through a complete code to deployment example, continue to the Kubernetes cluster tutorial.