Control outbound traffic with user defined routes

Note

This feature is only supported for the workload profiles environment type. User defined routes only work with an internal Azure Container Apps environment.

This article shows you how to use user defined routes (UDR) with Azure Firewall to lock down outbound traffic from your Container Apps to back-end Azure resources or other network resources.

Azure creates a default route table for your virtual networks on create. By implementing a user-defined route table, you can control how traffic is routed within your virtual network. In this guide, your setup UDR on the Container Apps virtual network to restrict outbound traffic with Azure Firewall.

You can also use a NAT gateway or any other third party appliances instead of Azure Firewall.

For more information on networking concepts in Container Apps, see Networking Environment in Azure Container Apps.

Prerequisites

  • Workload profiles environment: A workload profiles environment that's integrated with a custom virtual network. For more information, see the guide for how to create a container app environment on the workload profiles environment.

  • curl support: Your container app must have a container that supports curl commands. In this how-to, you use curl to verify the container app is deployed correctly. If you don't have a container app with curl deployed, you can deploy the following container which supports curl, mcr.microsoft.com/k8se/quickstart:latest.

Create the firewall subnet

A subnet called AzureFirewallSubnet is required in order to deploy a firewall into the integrated virtual network.

  1. Open the virtual network that's integrated with your app in the Azure portal.

  2. From the menu on the left, select Subnets, then select + Subnet.

  3. Enter the following values:

    Setting Action
    Name Enter AzureFirewallSubnet.
    Subnet address range Use the default or specify a subnet range /26 or larger.
  4. Select Save

Deploy the firewall

  1. On the Azure portal menu or the Home page, select Create a resource.

  2. Search for Firewall.

  3. Select Firewall.

  4. Select Create.

  5. On the Create a Firewall page, configure the firewall with the following settings.

    Setting Action
    Resource group Enter the same resource group as the integrated virtual network.
    Name Enter a name of your choice
    Region Select the same region as the integrated virtual network.
    Firewall policy Create one by selecting Add new.
    Virtual network Select the integrated virtual network.
    Public IP address Select an existing address or create one by selecting Add new.
  6. Select Review + create. After validation finishes, select Create. The validation step may take a few minutes to complete.

  7. Once the deployment completes, select Go to Resource.

  8. In the firewall's Overview page, copy the Firewall private IP. This IP address is used as the next hop address when creating the routing rule for the virtual network.

Route all traffic to the firewall

Your virtual networks in Azure have default route tables in place when you create the network. By implementing a user-defined route table, you can control how traffic is routed within your virtual network. In the following steps, you create a UDR to route all traffic to your Azure Firewall.

  1. On the Azure portal menu or the Home page, select Create a resource.

  2. Search for Route tables.

  3. Select Route Tables.

  4. Select Create.

  5. Enter the following values:

    Setting Action
    Region Select the region as your virtual network.
    Name Enter a name.
    Propagate gateway routes Select No
  6. Select Review + create. After validation finishes, select Create.

  7. Once the deployment completes, select Go to Resource.

  8. From the menu on the left, select Routes, then select Add to create a new route table

  9. Configure the route table with the following settings:

    Setting Action
    Address prefix Enter 0.0.0.0/0
    Next hop type Select Virtual appliance
    Next hop address Enter the Firewall Private IP you saved in Deploy the firewall.
  10. Select Add to create the route.

  11. From the menu on the left, select Subnets, then select Associate to associate your route table with the container app's subnet.

  12. Configure the Associate subnet with the following values:

    Setting Action
    Address prefix Select the virtual network for your container app.
    Next hop type Select the subnet your for container app.
  13. Select OK.

Configure firewall policies

Note

When using UDR with Azure Firewall in Azure Container Apps, you will need to add certain FQDN's and service tags to the allowlist for the firewall. Please refer to configuring UDR with Azure Firewall to determine which service tags you need.

Now, all outbound traffic from your container app is routed to the firewall. Currently, the firewall still allows all outbound traffic through. In order to manage what outbound traffic is allowed or denied, you need to configure firewall policies.

  1. In your Azure Firewall resource on the Overview page, select Firewall policy

  2. From the menu on the left of the firewall policy page, select Application Rules.

  3. Select Add a rule collection.

  4. Enter the following values for the Rule Collection:

    Setting Action
    Name Enter a collection name
    Rule collection type Select Application
    Priority Enter the priority such as 110
    Rule collection action Select Allow
    Rule collection group Select DefaultApplicationRuleCollectionGroup
  5. Under Rules, enter the following values

    Setting Action
    Name Enter a name for the rule
    Source type Select IP Address
    Source Enter *
    Protocol Enter http:80,https:443
    Destination Type Select FQDN.
    Destination Enter mcr.microsoft.com,*.data.mcr.microsoft.com. If you're using ACR, add your ACR address and *.blob.core.windows.net.
    Action Select Allow

    Note

    If you are using Docker Hub registry and want to access it through your firewall, you will need to add the following FQDNs to your rules destination list: hub.docker.com, registry-1.docker.io, and production.cloudflare.docker.com.

  6. Select Add.

Verify your firewall is blocking outbound traffic

To verify your firewall configuration is set up correctly, you can use the curl command from your app's debugging console.

  1. Navigate to your Container App that is configured with Azure Firewall.

  2. From the menu on the left, select Console, then select your container that supports the curl command.

  3. In the Choose start up command menu, select /bin/sh, and select Connect.

  4. In the console, run curl -s https://mcr.microsoft.com. You should see a successful response as you added mcr.microsoft.com to the allowlist for your firewall policies.

  5. Run curl -s https://<FQDN_ADDRESS> for a URL that doesn't match any of your destination rules such as example.com. The example command would be curl -s https://example.com. You should get no response, which indicates that your firewall has blocked the request.

Next steps