mv-apply operator

Applies a subquery to each record, and returns the union of the results of all subqueries.

For example, assume a table T has a column Metric of type dynamic whose values are arrays of real numbers. The following query locates the two biggest values in each Metric value, and return the records corresponding to these values.

T | mv-apply Metric to typeof(real) on 
   top 2 by Metric desc

The mv-apply operator has the following processing steps:

  1. Uses the mv-expand operator to expand each record in the input into subtables (order is preserved).
  2. Applies the subquery for each of the subtables.
  3. Adds zero or more columns to the resulting subtable. These columns contain the values of the source columns that aren't expanded, and are repeated where needed.
  4. Returns the union of the results.

The mv-apply operator gets the following inputs:

  1. One or more expressions that evaluate into dynamic arrays to expand. The number of records in each expanded subtable is the maximum length of each of those dynamic arrays. Null values are added where multiple expressions are specified and the corresponding arrays have different lengths.

  2. Optionally, the names to assign the values of the expressions after expansion. These names become the columns names in the subtables. If not specified, the original name of the column is used when the expression is a column reference. A random name is used otherwise.


    It is recommended to use the default column names.

  3. The data types of the elements of those dynamic arrays, after expansion. These become the column types of the columns in the subtables. If not specified, dynamic is used.

  4. Optionally, the name of a column to add to the subtables that specifies the 0-based index of the element in the array that resulted in the subtable record.

  5. Optionally, the maximum number of array elements to expand.

The mv-apply operator can be thought of as a generalization of the mv-expand operator (in fact, the latter can be implemented by the former, if the subquery includes only projections.)


T | mv-apply [ItemIndex] ColumnsToExpand [RowLimit] on ( SubQuery )

Where ItemIndex has the syntax:

with_itemindex = IndexColumnName

ColumnsToExpand is a comma-separated list of one or more elements of the form:

[Name =] ArrayExpression [to typeof (Typename)]

RowLimit is simply:

limit RowLimit

and SubQuery has the same syntax of any query statement.

Learn more about syntax conventions.


Name Type Required Description
ItemIndex string Indicates the name of a column of type long that's appended to the input as part of the array-expansion phase and indicates the 0-based array index of the expanded value.
Name string The name to assign the array-expanded values of each array-expanded expression. If not specified, the name of the column is used if available. A random name is generated if ArrayExpression isn't a simple column name.
ArrayExpression dynamic The array whose values are array-expanded. If the expression is the name of a column in the input, the input column is removed from the input and a new column of the same name, or ColumnName if specified, appears in the output.
Typename string The name of the type that the individual elements of the dynamic array ArrayExpression take. Elements that don't conform to this type are replaced by a null value. If unspecified, dynamic is used by default.
RowLimit int A limit on the number of records to generate from each record of the input. If unspecified, 2147483647 is used.
SubQuery string A tabular query expression with an implicit tabular source that gets applied to each array-expanded subtable.


Unlike the mv-expand operator, the mv-apply operator doesn't support bagexpand=array expansion. If the expression to be expanded is a property bag and not an array, you can use an inner mv-expand operator (see example below).


Getting the largest element from the array

let _data =
    range x from 1 to 8 step 1
    | summarize l=make_list(x) by xMod2 = x % 2;
| mv-apply element=l to typeof(long) on 
    top 1 by element


xMod2 l element
1 [1, 3, 5, 7] 7
0 [2, 4, 6, 8] 8

Calculating the sum of the largest two elements in an array

let _data =
    range x from 1 to 8 step 1
    | summarize l=make_list(x) by xMod2 = x % 2;
| mv-apply l to typeof(long) on
    top 2 by l
    | summarize SumOfTop2=sum(l)


xMod2 l SumOfTop2
1 [1,3,5,7] 12
0 [2,4,6,8] 14

Select elements in arrays

datatable (Val:int, Arr1:dynamic, Arr2:dynamic)
[ 1, dynamic(['A1', 'A2', 'A3']),       dynamic([10, 30, 7]), 
  7, dynamic(['B1', 'B2', 'B5']),       dynamic([15, 11, 50]),
  3, dynamic(['C1', 'C2', 'C3', 'C4']), dynamic([6, 40, 20, 8])
| mv-apply NewArr1=Arr1, NewArr2=Arr2 to typeof(long) on (
 top 2 by NewArr2
 | summarize NewArr1=make_list(NewArr1), NewArr2=make_list(NewArr2)


Val1 Arr1 Arr2 NewArr1 NewArr2
1 ["A1","A2","A3"] [10,30,7] ["A2',"A1"] [30,10]
7 ["B1","B2","B5"] [15,11,50] ["B5","B1"] [50,15]
3 ["C1","C2","C3","C4"] [6,40,20,8] ["C2","C3"] [40,20]

Using with_itemindex for working with a subset of the array

let _data =
    range x from 1 to 10 step 1
    | summarize l=make_list(x) by xMod2 = x % 2;
| mv-apply with_itemindex=index element=l to typeof(long) on 
    // here you have 'index' column
    where index >= 3
| project index, element


index element
3 7
4 9
3 8
4 10

Using mutiple columns to join element of 2 arrays

datatable (Val: int, Arr1: dynamic, Arr2: dynamic)
    1, dynamic(['A1', 'A2', 'A3']), dynamic(['B1', 'B2', 'B3']), 
    5, dynamic(['C1', 'C2']), dynamic(['D1', 'D2'])
| mv-apply Arr1, Arr2 on (
    extend Out = strcat(Arr1, "_", Arr2)
    | summarize Arr1 = make_list(Arr1), Arr2 = make_list(Arr2), Out= make_list(Out)


Val Arr1 Arr2 Out
1 ["A1","A2","A3"] ["B1","B2","B3"] ["A1_B1","A2_B2","A3_B3"]
5 ["C1","C2"] ["D1","D2"] ["C1_D1","C2_D2"]

Applying mv-apply to a property bag

In the following example, mv-apply is used in combination with an inner mv-expand to remove values that don't start with "555" from a property bag:

datatable(SourceNumber: string, TargetNumber: string, CharsCount: long)
    '555-555-1234', '555-555-1212', 46,
    '555-555-1212', '', int(null)
| extend values = pack_all()
| mv-apply removeProperties = values on 
    mv-expand kind = array values
    | where values[1] !startswith "555"
    | summarize propsToRemove = make_set(values[0])
| extend values = bag_remove_keys(values, propsToRemove)
| project-away propsToRemove


SourceNumber TargetNumber CharsCount values
555-555-1234 555-555-1212 46 {
"SourceNumber": "555-555-1234",
"TargetNumber": "555-555-1212"
555-555-1212     {
"SourceNumber": "555-555-1212"

See also