# Optimize queries that use named expressions

This article discusses how to optimize repeat use of named expressions in a query.

In Kusto Query Language, you can bind names to complex expressions in several different ways:

- In a let statement
- In the as operator
- In the formal parameters list of user-defined functions

When you reference these named expressions in a query, the following steps occur:

- The calculation within the named expression is evaluated. This calculation produces either a scalar or tabular value.
- The named expression is replaced with the calculated value.

If the same bound name is used multiple times, then the underlying calculation will be repeated multiple times. When is this a concern?

- When the calculations consume many resources and are used many times.
- When the calculation is non-deterministic, but the query assumes all invocations to return the same value.

## Mitigation

To mitigate these concerns, you can materialize the calculation results in memory during the query. Depending on the way the named calculation is defined, you'll use different materialization strategies:

### Tabular functions

Use the following strategies for tabular functions:

**let statements and function parameters**: Use the materialize() function.**as operator**: Set the`hint.materialized`

hint value to`true`

.

For example, the following query uses the non-deterministic tabular sample operator:

Note

Tables aren't sorted in general, so any table reference in a query is, by definition, non-deterministic.

**Behavior without using the materialize function**

```
range x from 1 to 100 step 1
| sample 1
| as T
| union T
```

**Output**

x |
---|

63 |

92 |

**Behavior using the materialize function**

```
range x from 1 to 100 step 1
| sample 1
| as hint.materialized=true T
| union T
```

**Output**

x |
---|

95 |

95 |

### Scalar functions

Non-deterministic scalar functions can be forced to calculate exactly once by using toscalar().

For example, the following query uses the non-deterministic function, rand():

```
let x = () {rand(1000)};
let y = () {toscalar(rand(1000))};
print x, x, y, y
```

**Output**

print_0 | print_1 | print_2 | print_3 |
---|---|---|---|

166 | 137 | 70 | 70 |

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