# summarize operator

Produces a table that aggregates the content of the input table.

## Syntax

*T* `| summarize`

[ *SummarizeParameters* ]
[[*Column* `=`

] *Aggregation* [`,`

...]]
[`by`

[*Column* `=`

] *GroupExpression* [`,`

...]]

Learn more about syntax conventions.

## Parameters

Name | Type | Required | Description |
---|---|---|---|

Column |
`string` |
The name for the result column. Defaults to a name derived from the expression. | |

Aggregation |
`string` |
✔️ | A call to an aggregation function such as `count()` or `avg()` , with column names as arguments. |

GroupExpression |
scalar | ✔️ | A scalar expression that can reference the input data. The output will have as many records as there are distinct values of all the group expressions. |

SummarizeParameters |
`string` |
Zero or more space-separated parameters in the form of Name `=` Value that control the behavior. See supported parameters. |

Note

When the input table is empty, the output depends on whether *GroupExpression*
is used:

- If
*GroupExpression*is not provided, the output will be a single (empty) row. - If
*GroupExpression*is provided, the output will have no rows.

### Supported parameters

Name | Description |
---|---|

`hint.num_partitions` |
Specifies the number of partitions used to share the query load on cluster nodes. See shuffle query |

`hint.shufflekey=<key>` |
The `shufflekey` query shares the query load on cluster nodes, using a key to partition data. See shuffle query |

`hint.strategy=shuffle` |
The `shuffle` strategy query shares the query load on cluster nodes, where each node will process one partition of the data. See shuffle query |

## Returns

The input rows are arranged into groups having the same values of the `by`

expressions. Then the specified aggregation functions are computed over each group, producing a row for each group. The result contains the `by`

columns and also at least one column for each computed aggregate. (Some aggregation functions return multiple columns.)

The result has as many rows as there are distinct combinations of `by`

values
(which may be zero). If there are no group keys provided, the result has a single
record.

To summarize over ranges of numeric values, use `bin()`

to reduce ranges to discrete values.

Note

- Although you can provide arbitrary expressions for both the aggregation and grouping expressions, it's more efficient to use simple column names, or apply
`bin()`

to a numeric column. - The automatic hourly bins for datetime columns is no longer supported. Use explicit binning instead. For example,
`summarize by bin(timestamp, 1h)`

.

## Default values of aggregations

The following table summarizes the default values of aggregations:

Operator | Default value |
---|---|

`count()` , `countif()` , `dcount()` , `dcountif()` , `count_distinct()` , `sum()` , `sumif()` , `variance()` , `varianceif()` , `stdev()` , `stdevif()` |
0 |

`make_bag()` , `make_bag_if()` , `make_list()` , `make_list_if()` , `make_set()` , `make_set_if()` |
empty dynamic array ([]) |

All others | null |

Note

When applying these aggregates to entities that include null values, the null values are ignored and don't factor into the calculation. For examples, see Aggregates default values.

## Examples

### Unique combination

The following query determines what unique combinations of `State`

and `EventType`

there are for storms that resulted in direct injury. There are no aggregation functions, just group-by keys. The output will just show the columns for those results.

```
StormEvents
| where InjuriesDirect > 0
| summarize by State, EventType
```

**Output**

The following table shows only the first 5 rows. To see the full output, run the query.

State | EventType |
---|---|

TEXAS | Thunderstorm Wind |

TEXAS | Flash Flood |

TEXAS | Winter Weather |

TEXAS | High Wind |

TEXAS | Flood |

... | ... |

### Minimum and maximum timestamp

Finds the minimum and maximum heavy rain storms in Hawaii. There's no group-by clause, so there's just one row in the output.

```
StormEvents
| where State == "HAWAII" and EventType == "Heavy Rain"
| project Duration = EndTime - StartTime
| summarize Min = min(Duration), Max = max(Duration)
```

**Output**

Min | Max |
---|---|

01:08:00 | 11:55:00 |

### Distinct count

Create a row for each continent, showing a count of the cities in which activities occur. Because there are few values for "continent", no grouping function is needed in the 'by' clause:

```
StormEvents
| summarize TypesOfStorms=dcount(EventType) by State
| sort by TypesOfStorms
```

**Output**

The following table shows only the first 5 rows. To see the full output, run the query.

State | TypesOfStorms |
---|---|

TEXAS | 27 |

CALIFORNIA | 26 |

PENNSYLVANIA | 25 |

GEORGIA | 24 |

ILLINOIS | 23 |

... | ... |

### Histogram

The following example calculates a histogram storm event types that had storms lasting longer than 1 day. Because `Duration`

has many values, use `bin()`

to group its values into 1-day intervals.

```
StormEvents
| project EventType, Duration = EndTime - StartTime
| where Duration > 1d
| summarize EventCount=count() by EventType, Length=bin(Duration, 1d)
| sort by Length
```

**Output**

EventType | Length | EventCount |
---|---|---|

Drought | 30.00:00:00 | 1646 |

Wildfire | 30.00:00:00 | 11 |

Heat | 30.00:00:00 | 14 |

Flood | 30.00:00:00 | 20 |

Heavy Rain | 29.00:00:00 | 42 |

... | ... | ... |

### Aggregates default values

When the input of `summarize`

operator has at least one empty group-by key, its result is empty, too.

When the input of `summarize`

operator doesn't have an empty group-by key, the result is the default values of the aggregates used in the `summarize`

For more information, see Default values of aggregations.

```
datatable(x:long)[]
| summarize any_x=take_any(x), arg_max_x=arg_max(x, *), arg_min_x=arg_min(x, *), avg(x), buildschema(todynamic(tostring(x))), max(x), min(x), percentile(x, 55), hll(x) ,stdev(x), sum(x), sumif(x, x > 0), tdigest(x), variance(x)
```

**Output**

any_x | arg_max_x | arg_min_x | avg_x | schema_x | max_x | min_x | percentile_x_55 | hll_x | stdev_x | sum_x | sumif_x | tdigest_x | variance_x |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

NaN | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

The result of `avg_x(x)`

is `NaN`

due to dividing by 0.

```
datatable(x:long)[]
| summarize count(x), countif(x > 0) , dcount(x), dcountif(x, x > 0)
```

**Output**

count_x | countif_ | dcount_x | dcountif_x |
---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

```
datatable(x:long)[]
| summarize make_set(x), make_list(x)
```

**Output**

set_x | list_x |
---|---|

[] | [] |

The aggregate avg sums all the non-nulls and counts only those which participated in the calculation (won't take nulls into account).

```
range x from 1 to 4 step 1
| extend y = iff(x == 1, real(null), real(5))
| summarize sum(y), avg(y)
```

**Output**

sum_y | avg_y |
---|---|

15 | 5 |

The regular count will count nulls:

```
range x from 1 to 2 step 1
| extend y = iff(x == 1, real(null), real(5))
| summarize count(y)
```

**Output**

count_y |
---|

2 |

```
range x from 1 to 2 step 1
| extend y = iff(x == 1, real(null), real(5))
| summarize make_set(y), make_set(y)
```

**Output**

set_y | set_y1 |
---|---|

[5.0] | [5.0] |

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