SQL language reference

This is a SQL command reference for Databricks SQL and Databricks Runtime.

For information about using SQL with Delta Live Tables, see Delta Live Tables SQL language reference.

Note

Databricks SQL is not available in Azure China regions.

“Applies to” label

The SQL reference encompasses both Databricks SQL and Databricks Runtime. Near the top of each article is a label that indicates which products and versions are supported for that article.

For example, this article applies to all versions for both Databricks SQL and Databricks Runtime:

Applies to: check marked yes Databricks SQL check marked yes Databricks Runtime

In this example, this article applies to all version of Databricks SQL and Databricks Runtime versions 11.1 and above:

Applies to: check marked yes Databricks SQL check marked yes Databricks Runtime 11.1 and above

In this example, this article just applies to Databricks SQL and is not supported in Databricks Runtime:

Applies to: check marked yes Databricks SQL

In some cases, an article mostly applies to a product, but certain parameters within an article are only supported by one product or specific versions of a product. In this case, the Applies to label is inserted into the appropriate parameter in the body of the article. For example:

The top of an article might state: Applies to: check marked yes Databricks SQL check marked yes Databricks Runtime

One specific parameter within the article might indicate Applies to: check marked yes Databricks SQL check marked yes Databricks Runtime 11.1 and above. This means that most of the document is supported by all versions of both Databricks SQL and Databricks Runtime, and that specific parameter is supported by all versions of Databricks SQL and only Databricks Runtime versions 11.1 and above.

Another specific parameter within the article might indicate Applies to: check marked yes Databricks Runtime 11.1 and above. This means that most of the document is supported by all versions of Databricks SQL and Databricks Runtime, but that specific parameter is not supported by Databricks SQL and is only supported in Databricks Runtime versions 11.1 and above.

General reference

This general reference describes data types, functions, identifiers, literals, and semantics:

DDL statements

You use data definition statements to create or modify the structure of database objects in a database:

DML statements

You use data manipulation statements to add, change, or delete data from a Delta Lake table:

Data retrieval statements

You use a query to retrieve rows from one or more tables according to the specified clauses. The full syntax and brief description of supported clauses are explained in the Query article. The related SQL statements SELECT and VALUES are also included in this section.

Databricks SQL also provides the ability to generate the logical and physical plan for a query using the EXPLAIN statement.

Delta Lake statements

You use Delta Lake SQL statements to manage tables stored in Delta Lake format:

For details on using Delta Lake statements, see What is Delta Lake?.

Auxiliary statements

You use auxiliary statements to collect statistics, manage caching, explore metadata, set configurations, and manage resources:

Analyze statement

Apache Spark Cache statements

Applies to: check marked yes Databricks Runtime

Describe statements

Show statements

Configuration management

Resource management

Applies to: check marked yes Databricks Runtime

Security statements

You use security SQL statements to manage access to data:

For details using these statements, see Data object privileges.