Configure Connection Monitor for ExpressRoute

This article helps you configure a Connection Monitor extension to monitor ExpressRoute. Connection Monitor is a cloud-based network monitoring solution that monitors connectivity between Azure cloud deployments and on-premises locations (Branch offices, etc.). Connection Monitor is part of Azure Monitor logs. The extension also lets you monitor network connectivity for your private and Microsoft peering connections. When you configure Connection Monitor for ExpressRoute, you can detect network issues to identify and eliminate.


This article was recently updated to use the term Azure Monitor logs instead of Log Analytics. Log data is still stored in a Log Analytics workspace and is still collected and analyzed by the same Log Analytics service. We are updating the terminology to better reflect the role of logs in Azure Monitor. See Azure Monitor terminology changes for details.

With Connection Monitor for ExpressRoute you can:

  • Monitor loss and latency across various VNets and set alerts.

  • Monitor all paths (including redundant paths) on the network.

  • Troubleshoot transient and point-in-time network issues that are difficult to replicate.

  • Help determine a specific segment on the network that is responsible for degraded performance.


Monitoring agents are installed on multiple servers, both on-premises and in Azure. The agents communicate with each other by sending TCP handshake packets. The communication between the agents allows Azure to map the network topology and path the traffic could take.

  1. Create a Log Analytics workspace.

  2. Install and configure software agents. (If you only want to monitor over Microsoft Peering, you don't need to install and configure software agents.):

    • Install monitoring agents on the on-premises servers and the Azure VMs (for private peering).
    • Configure settings on the monitoring agent servers to allow the monitoring agents to communicate. (Open firewall ports, etc.)
  3. Configure network security group (NSG) rules to allow the monitoring agent installed on Azure VMs to communicate with on-premises monitoring agents.

  4. Enable Network Watcher on your subscription.

  5. Set up monitoring: Create connection monitors with test groups to monitor source and destination endpoints across your network.

If you're already using Network Performance Monitor (deprecated) or Connection Monitor to monitor other objects or services, and you already have a Log Analytics workspace in one of the supported regions. You may skip step 1 and step 2, and begin your configuration on step 3.

Create a Workspace

Create a workspace in the subscription that has the VNets link to the ExpressRoute circuit(s).

  1. Sign in to the Azure portal. From the subscription that has the virtual networks connected to your ExpressRoute circuit, select + Create a resource. Search for Log Analytics Workspace, then select Create.


    You can create a new workspace, or use an existing workspace. If you want to use an existing workspace, you must make sure that the workspace has been migrated to the new query language. More information...

    Screenshot of searching for Log Analytics in create a resource.

  2. Create a workspace by entering or selecting the following information.

    Settings Value
    Subscription Select the subscription with the ExpressRoute circuit.
    Resource Group Create a new or select an existing resource group.
    Name Enter a name to identify this workspace.
    Region Select a region where this workspace will be created in.

    Screenshot of basic tab for create Log Analytics workspace.


    The ExpressRoute circuit can be anywhere in the world. It doesn't have to be in the same region as the workspace.

  3. Select Review + Create to validate and then Create to deploy the workspace. Once the workspace has been deployed continue to the next section to configure the monitoring solution.

Configure monitoring solution

Complete the Azure PowerShell script below by replacing the values for $SubscriptionId, $location, $resourceGroup, and $workspaceName. Then run the script to configure the monitoring solution.

$subscriptionId = "Subscription ID should come here"
Select-AzSubscription -SubscriptionId $subscriptionId

$location = "Workspace location should come here"
$resourceGroup = "Resource group name should come here"
$workspaceName = "Workspace name should come here"

$solution = @{
    Location          = $location
    Properties        = @{
        workspaceResourceId = "/subscriptions/$($subscriptionId)/resourcegroups/$($resourceGroup)/providers/Microsoft.OperationalInsights/workspaces/$($workspaceName)"
    Plan              = @{
        Name          = "NetworkMonitoring($($workspaceName))" 
        Publisher     = "Microsoft"
        Product       = "OMSGallery/NetworkMonitoring"
        PromotionCode = ""
    ResourceName      = "NetworkMonitoring($($workspaceName))" 
    ResourceType      = "Microsoft.OperationsManagement/solutions" 
    ResourceGroupName = $resourceGroup

New-AzResource @solution -Force

Once you've configured the monitoring solution. Continue to the next step of installing and configuring the monitoring agents on your servers.

Install and configure agents on-premises

Download the agent setup file

  1. Navigate to the Log Analytics workspace and select Agents management under Settings. Download the agent that corresponds to your machine's operating system.

    Screenshot of agent management page in workspace.

  2. Next, copy the Workspace ID and Primary Key to Notepad.

    Screenshot of workspace ID and primary key.

  3. For Windows machines, download and run this PowerShell script EnableRules.ps1 in a PowerShell window with Administrator privileges. The PowerShell script will open the relevant firewall port for the TCP transactions.

    For Linux machines, the port number needs to be changed manually with the following steps:

    • Navigate to path: /var/opt/microsoft/omsagent/npm_state.
    • Open file: npmdregistry
    • Change the value for Port Number PortNumber:<port of your choice>

Install Log Analytics agent on each monitoring server

It's recommended that you install the Log Analytics agent on at least two servers on both sides of the ExpressRoute connection for redundancy. For example, your on-premises and Azure virtual network. Use the following steps to install agents:

  1. Select the appropriate operating system below for the steps to install the Log Analytics agent on your servers.

  2. When complete, the Microsoft Monitoring Agent appears in the Control Panel. You can review your configuration, and verify the agent connectivity to Azure Monitor logs.

  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the other on-premises machines that you wish to use for monitoring.

Install Network Watcher agent on each monitoring server

New Azure virtual machine

If you're creating a new Azure VM for monitoring connectivity your VNet, you can install the Network Watcher agent when creating the VM.

Existing Azure virtual machine

If you're using an existing VM to monitor connectivity, you can install the Network Agent separately for Linux and Windows.

Open the firewall ports on the monitoring agent servers

Rules for a firewall can block communication between the source and destination servers. Connection Monitor detects this issue and displays it as a diagnostic message in the topology. To enable connection monitoring, ensure that firewall rules allow packets over TCP or ICMP between the source and destination.


For Windows machines, you can run a PowerShell script to create the registry keys that are required by the Connection Monitor. This script also creates the Windows Firewall rules to allow monitoring agents to create TCP connections with each other. The registry keys created by the script specify whether to log the debug logs, and the path for the logs file. It also defines the agent TCP port used for communication. The values for these keys are automatically set by the script. You shouldn't manually change these keys.

Port 8084 is opened by default. You can use a custom port by providing the parameter 'portNumber' to the script. However, if you do so, you must specify the same port for all the servers on which you run the script.


The 'EnableRules' PowerShell script configures Windows Firewall rules only on the server where the script is run. If you have a network firewall, you should make sure that it allows traffic destined for the TCP port being used by Connection Monitor.

On the agent servers, open a PowerShell window with administrative privileges. Run the EnableRules PowerShell script (which you downloaded earlier). Don't use any parameters.

Screenshot of running enable rules script in PowerShell window.


For Linux machines, the port numbers used needs to be changed manually:

  1. Navigate to path: /var/opt/microsoft/omsagent/npm_state.
  2. Open file: npmdregistry
  3. Change the value for Port Number PortNumber:\<port of your choice\>. The port numbers being used should be same across all the agents used in a workspace

Configure network security group rules

To monitor servers that are in Azure, you must configure network security group (NSG) rules to allow TCP or ICMP traffic from Connection Monitor. The default port is **8084, which allows the monitoring agent installed on the Azure VM to communicate with an on-premises monitoring agent.

For more information about NSG, see tutorial on filtering network traffic.


Make sure that you have installed the agents (both the on-premises server agent and the Azure server agent), and have run the PowerShell script before proceeding with this step.

Enable Network Watcher

All subscriptions that have a virtual network are enabled with Network Watcher. Ensure that Network Watcher isn't explicitly disabled for your subscription. For more information, see Enable Network Watcher.

Create a connection monitor

For a high-level overview of how to create a connection monitor, tests, and test groups across source and destination endpoints in your network, see Create a connection monitor. Use the following steps to configure connection monitoring for Private Peering and Microsoft Peering.

  1. In the Azure portal, navigate to your Network Watcher resource and select Connection monitor under Monitoring. Then select Create to create a new connection monitor.

    Screenshot of connection monitor in Network Watcher.

  2. On the Basics tab of the creation workflow, select the same region where you deployed your Log Analytics workspace for the Region field. For Workspace configuration, select the existing Log Analytics workspace that you created earlier. Then select Next: Test groups >>.

    Screenshot of basic tab for creating Connection Monitor.

  3. On the Add test group details page, you'll add the source and destination endpoints for your test group. You 'll also set up the test configurations between them. Enter a Name for this test group.

    Screenshot of add test group details page.

  4. Select Add source and navigate to the Non-Azure endpoints tab. Choose the on-premises resources that have Log Analytics agent installed that you want to monitor connectivity, then select Add endpoints.

    Screenshot of adding source endpoints.

  5. Next, select Add destinations.

    To monitor connectivity over ExpressRoute private peering, navigate to the Azure endpoints tab. Choose the Azure resources with the Network Watcher agent installed that you want to monitor connectivity to your virtual networks in Azure. Make sure to select the private IP address of each of these resources in the IP column. Select Add endpoints to add these endpoints to your list of destinations for the test group.

    Screenshot of adding Azure destination endpoints.

    To monitor connectivity over ExpressRoute Microsoft peering, navigate to the External Addresses tab. Select the Microsoft services endpoints that you wish to monitor connectivity to over Microsoft Peering. Select Add endpoints to add these endpoints to your list of destinations for the test group.

    Screenshot of adding external destination endpoints.

  6. Now select Add test configuration. Select TCP for the protocol, and input the destination port you opened on your servers. Then configure your test frequency and thresholds for failed checks and round trip time. Then select Add Test configuration.

    Screenshot of add test configuration page.

  7. Select Add Test Group once you've added your sources, destinations, and test configuration.

    Screenshot of add test group detail configured.

  8. Select the Next : Create alert >> if you want to create alerting. Once completed, select Review + create and then Create.

View results

  1. Go to your Network Watcher resource and select Connection monitor under Monitoring. You should see your new connection monitor after 5 minutes. To view the connection monitor's network topology and performance charts, select the test from the test group dropdown.

    Screenshot of connection monitor overview page.

  2. In the Performance analysis panel, you can view the percentage of check failed and each test's results for round-trip time. You can adjust the time frame for the data displayed by selecting the dropdown at the top of the panel.

    Screenshot of performance analysis panel.

  3. Closing the Performance analysis panel reveals the network topology detected by the connection monitor between the source and destination endpoints you selected. This view shows you the bi-directional paths of traffic between your source and destination endpoints. You can also see the hop-by-hop latency of packets before they reach the Microsoft's edge network.

    Screenshot of network topology in connection monitor.

    Selecting any hop in the topology view will display additional information about the hop. Any issues detected by the connection monitor about the hop will also be displayed here.

    Screenshot of more information for a network hop.

Next steps

Learn more about Monitoring Azure ExpressRoute