Create an IoT Edge device
Applies to: IoT Edge 1.4
This article provides an overview of the options available to you for installing and provisioning IoT Edge on your devices.
This article provides a look at all of the options for your IoT Edge solution and helps you:
By the end of this article, you'll have a clear picture of what platform, provisioning, and authentication options you want to use for your IoT Edge solution.
If you know what type of platform, provisioning, and authentication options you want to use to create an IoT Edge device, use the links in the following table to get started.
If you want more information about how to choose the right option for you, continue through this article to learn more.
The following table reflects the supported scenarios for IoT Edge version 1.4.
|Linux containers on Linux hosts||Linux containers on Windows hosts|
|Manual provisioning (single device)||X.509 certificates
|Autoprovisioning (devices at scale)||X.509 certificates
Terms and concepts
If you're not already familiar with IoT Edge terminology, review some key concepts:
IoT Edge runtime: The IoT Edge runtime is a collection of programs that turn a device into an IoT Edge device. Collectively, the IoT Edge runtime components enable IoT Edge devices to run your IoT Edge modules.
Provisioning: Each IoT Edge device must be provisioned. Provisioning is a two-step process. The first step is registering the device in an IoT hub, which creates a cloud identity that the device uses to establish the connection to its hub. The second step is configuring the device with its cloud identity. Provisioning can be done manually on a per-device basis, or it can be done at-scale using the IoT Hub Device Provisioning Service.
Authentication: Your IoT Edge devices need to verify its identity when it connects to IoT Hub. You can choose which authentication method to use, like symmetric key passwords, certificate thumbprints, or trusted platform modules (TPMs).
Choose a platform
Platform options are referred to by the container operating system and the host operating system. The container operating system is the operating system used inside your IoT Edge runtime and module containers. The host operating system is the operating system of the device the IoT Edge runtime containers and modules are running on.
There are three platform options for your IoT Edge devices.
Linux containers on Linux hosts: Run Linux-based IoT Edge containers directly on a Linux host. Throughout the IoT Edge docs, you'll also see this option referred to as Linux and Linux containers for simplicity.
Linux containers on Windows hosts: Run Linux-based IoT Edge containers in a Linux virtual machine on a Windows host. Throughout the IoT Edge docs, you'll also see this option referred to as Linux on Windows, IoT Edge for Linux on Windows, and EFLOW.
Windows containers on Windows hosts: Run Windows-based IoT Edge containers directly on a Windows host. Throughout the IoT Edge docs, you'll also see this option referred to as Windows and Windows containers for simplicity.
For the latest information about which operating systems are currently supported for production scenarios, see Azure IoT Edge supported systems.
Linux containers on Linux
For Linux devices, the IoT Edge runtime is installed directly on the host device.
IoT Edge supports X64, ARM32, and ARM64 Linux devices. Microsoft provides official installation packages for a variety of operating systems.
Linux containers on Windows
IoT Edge for Linux on Windows hosts a Linux virtual machine on your Windows device. The virtual machine comes prebuilt with the IoT Edge runtime and updates are managed through Microsoft Update.
IoT Edge for Linux on Windows is the recommended way to run IoT Edge on Windows devices. To learn more, see What is Azure IoT Edge for Linux on Windows.
Windows containers on Windows
IoT Edge version 1.4 doesn't support Windows containers. Windows containers are not supported beyond version 1.1.
Choose how to provision your devices
You can provision a single device or multiple devices at-scale, depending on the needs of your IoT Edge solution.
The options available for authenticating communications between your IoT Edge devices and your IoT hubs depend on what provisioning method you choose. You can read more about those options in the Choose an authentication method section.
Single device provisioning refers to provisioning an IoT Edge device without the assistance of the IoT Hub Device Provisioning Service (DPS). You'll see single device provisioning also referred to as manual provisioning.
Using single device provisioning, you'll need to manually enter provisioning information, like a connection string, on your devices. Manual provisioning is quick and easy to set up for only a few devices, but your workload will increase with the number of devices. Provisioning helps when you're considering the scalability of your solution.
Symmetric key and X.509 self-signed authentication methods are available for manual provisioning. You can read more about those options in the Choose an authentication method section.
Devices at scale
Provisioning devices at-scale refers to provisioning one or more IoT Edge devices with the assistance of the IoT Hub Device Provisioning Service. You'll see provisioning at-scale also referred to as autoprovisioning.
If your IoT Edge solution requires more than one device, autoprovisioning using DPS saves you the effort of manually entering provisioning information into the configuration files of each device. This automated model can be scaled to millions of IoT Edge devices.
You can secure your IoT Edge solution with the authentication method of your choice. Symmetric key, X.509 certificates, and trusted platform module (TPM) attestation authentication methods are available for provisioning devices at-scale. You can read more about those options in the Choose an authentication method section.
To see more of the features of DPS, see the Features section of the overview page.
Choose an authentication method
X.509 certificate attestation
Using X.509 certificates as an attestation mechanism is the recommended way to scale production and simplify device provisioning. Typically, X.509 certificates are arranged in a certificate chain of trust. Starting with a self-signed or trusted root certificate, each certificate in the chain signs the next lower certificate. This pattern creates a delegated chain of trust from the root certificate down through each intermediate certificate to the final downstream device certificate installed on a device.
You create two X.509 identity certificates and place them on the device. When you create a new device identity in IoT Hub, you provide thumbprints from both certificates. When the device authenticates to IoT Hub, it presents one certificate and IoT Hub verifies that the certificate matches its thumbprint. The X.509 keys on the device should be stored in a Hardware Security Module (HSM). For example, PKCS#11 modules, ATECC, dTPM, etc.
This authentication method is more secure than symmetric keys and supports group enrollments which provides a simplified management experience for a high number of devices. This authentication method is recommended for production scenarios.
Trusted platform module (TPM) attestation
Using TPM attestation is a method for device provisioning that uses authentication features in both software and hardware. Each TPM chip uses a unique endorsement key to verify its authenticity.
TPM attestation is only available for provisioning at-scale with DPS, and only supports individual enrollments not group enrollments. Group enrollments aren't available because of the device-specific nature of TPM.
TPM 2.0 is required when you use TPM attestation with the device provisioning service.
This authentication method is more secure than symmetric keys and is recommended for production scenarios.
Symmetric keys attestation
Symmetric key attestation is a simple approach to authenticating a device. This attestation method represents a "Hello world" experience for developers who are new to device provisioning, or don't have strict security requirements.
When you create a new device identity in IoT Hub, the service creates two keys. You place one of the keys on the device, and it presents the key to IoT Hub when authenticating.
This authentication method is faster to get started but not as secure. Device provisioning using a TPM or X.509 certificates is more secure and should be used for solutions with more stringent security requirements.
You can use the table of contents to navigate to the appropriate end-to-end guide for creating an IoT Edge device for your IoT Edge solution's platform, provisioning, and authentication requirements.
You can also use the links below to go to the relevant article.
Linux containers on Linux hosts
Manually provision a single device:
- Provision a single Linux device using X.509 certificates
- Provision a single Linux device using symmetric keys
Provision multiple devices at-scale:
- Provision Linux devices at-scale using X.509 certificates
- Provision Linux devices at-scale using TPM attestation
- Provision Linux devices at-scale using symmetric keys
Linux containers on Windows hosts
Manually provision a single device:
- Provision a single Linux on Windows device using X.509 certificates
- Provision a single Linux on Windows device using symmetric keys
Provision multiple devices at-scale: