pg_azure_storage extension - Preview

APPLIES TO: Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Flexible Server

The pg_azure_storage extension allows you to import or export data in multiple file formats directly between Azure blob storage and your Azure Database for PostgreSQL flexible server instance. Containers with access level "Private" or "Blob" requires adding private access key.

Before you can enable azure_storage on your Azure Database for PostgreSQL flexible server instance, you need to add the extension to your allowlist as described in how to use PostgreSQL extensions and check if correctly added by running SHOW azure.extensions;.

Then you can install the extension, by connecting to your target database and running the CREATE EXTENSION command. You need to repeat the command separately for every database you want the extension to be available in.

CREATE EXTENSION azure_storage;

Permissions

Your Azure blob storage (ABS) access keys are similar to a root password for your storage account. Always be careful to protect your access keys. Use Azure Key Vault to manage and rotate your keys securely. The account key is stored in a table that is accessible only by the superuser.

Users granted the azure_storage_admin role can interact with this table using the following functions:

  • account_add
  • account_list
  • account_remove
  • account_user_add
  • account_user_remove

The azure_storage_admin role is by default granted to the azure_pg_admin role.

azure_storage.account_add

Function allows adding access to a storage account.

azure_storage.account_add
        (account_name_p text
        ,account_key_p text);

Arguments

account_name_p

An Azure blob storage (ABS) account contains all of your ABS objects: blobs, files, queues, and tables. The storage account provides a unique namespace for your ABS that is accessible from anywhere in the world over HTTPS.

account_key_p

Your Azure blob storage (ABS) access keys are similar to a root password for your storage account. Always be careful to protect your access keys. Use Azure Key Vault to manage and rotate your keys securely. The account key is stored in a table that is accessible only by the superuser. Users granted the azure_storage_admin role can interact with this table via functions. To see which storage accounts exist, use the function account_list.

azure_storage.account_remove

Function allows revoking account access to storage account.

azure_storage.account_remove
        (account_name_p text);

Arguments

account_name_p

Azure blob storage (ABS) account contains all of your ABS objects: blobs, files, queues, and tables. The storage account provides a unique namespace for your ABS that is accessible from anywhere in the world over HTTPS.

azure_storage.account_user_add

The function allows adding access for a role to a storage account.

azure_storage.account_add
        ( account_name_p text
        , user_p regrole);

Arguments

account_name_p

An Azure blob storage (ABS) account contains all of your ABS objects: blobs, files, queues, and tables. The storage account provides a unique namespace for your ABS that is accessible from anywhere in the world over HTTPS.

user_p

Role created by user visible on the cluster.

azure_storage.account_user_remove

The function allows removing access for a role to a storage account.

azure_storage.account_remove
        (account_name_p text
        ,user_p regrole);

Arguments

account_name_p

An Azure blob storage (ABS) account contains all of your ABS objects: blobs, files, queues, and tables. The storage account provides a unique namespace for your ABS that is accessible from anywhere in the world over HTTPS.

user_p

Role created by user visible on the cluster.

azure_storage.account_list

The function lists the account & role having access to Azure blob storage.

azure_storage.account_list
        (OUT account_name text
        ,OUT allowed_users regrole[]
        )
Returns TABLE;

Arguments

account_name

Azure blob storage (ABS) account contains all of your ABS objects: blobs, files, queues, and tables. The storage account provides a unique namespace for your ABS that is accessible from anywhere in the world over HTTPS.

allowed_users

Lists the users having access to the Azure blob storage.

Return type

TABLE

azure_storage.blob_list

The function lists the available blob files within a user container with their properties.

azure_storage.blob_list
        (account_name text
        ,container_name text
        ,prefix text DEFAULT ''::text
        ,OUT path text
        ,OUT bytes bigint
        ,OUT last_modified timestamp with time zone
        ,OUT etag text
        ,OUT content_type text
        ,OUT content_encoding text
        ,OUT content_hash text
        )
Returns SETOF record;

Arguments

account_name

The storage account name provides a unique namespace for your Azure storage data that's accessible from anywhere in the world over HTTPS.

container_name

A container organizes a set of blobs, similar to a directory in a file system. A storage account can include an unlimited number of containers, and a container can store an unlimited number of blobs. A container name must be a valid DNS name, as it forms part of the unique URI used to address the container or its blobs. Follow these rules when naming a container:

  • Container names can be between 3 and 63 characters long.
  • Container names must start with a letter or number, and can contain only lowercase letters, numbers, and the dash (-) character.
  • Two or more consecutive dash characters aren't permitted in container names.

The URI for a container is similar to: https://myaccount.blob.core.windows.net/mycontainer

prefix

Returns file from blob container with matching string initials.

path

Full qualified path of Azure blob directory.

bytes

Size of file object in bytes.

last_modified

Describes when the file content was last modified.

etag

An ETag property is used for optimistic concurrency during updates. It isn't a timestamp as there's another property called Timestamp that stores the last time a record was updated. For example, if you load an entity and want to update it, the ETag must match what is currently stored. Setting the appropriate ETag is important because if you have multiple users editing the same item, you don't want them overwriting each other's changes.

content_type

The Blob object represents a blob, which is a file-like object of immutable, raw data. They can be read as text or binary data, or converted into a ReadableStream so its methods can be used for processing the data. Blobs can represent data that isn't necessarily in a JavaScript-native format.

content_encoding

Azure Storage allows you to define Content-Encoding property on a blob. For compressed content, you could set the property to be GZIP. When the browser accesses the content, it automatically decompresses the content.

content_hash

This hash is used to verify the integrity of the blob during transport. When this header is specified, the storage service checks the provided hash with one computed from content. If the two hashes don't match, the operation fails with error code 400 (Bad Request).

Return type

SETOF record

azure_storage.blob_get

The function allows loading the content of file \ files from within the container, with added support on filtering or manipulation of data, prior to import.

azure_storage.blob_get
        (account_name text
        ,container_name text
        ,path text
        ,decoder text DEFAULT 'auto'::text
        ,compression text DEFAULT 'auto'::text
        ,options jsonb DEFAULT NULL::jsonb
        )
RETURNS SETOF record;

There's an overloaded version of function, containing rec parameter that allows you to conveniently define the output format record.

azure_storage.blob_get
        (account_name text
        ,container_name text
        ,path text
        ,rec anyelement
        ,decoder text DEFAULT 'auto'::text
        ,compression text DEFAULT 'auto'::text
        ,options jsonb DEFAULT NULL::jsonb
        )
RETURNS SETOF anyelement;

Arguments

account

The storage account provides a unique namespace for your Azure Storage data that's accessible from anywhere in the world over HTTPS.

container

A container organizes a set of blobs, similar to a directory in a file system. A storage account can include an unlimited number of containers, and a container can store an unlimited number of blobs. A container name must be a valid DNS name, as it forms part of the unique URI used to address the container or its blobs.

path

Blob name existing in the container.

rec

Define the record output structure.

decoder

Specify the blob format Decoder can be set to auto (default) or any of the following values

decoder description

Format Description
csv Comma-separated values format used by PostgreSQL COPY
tsv Tab-separated values, the default PostgreSQL COPY format
binary Binary PostgreSQL COPY format
text A file containing a single text value (for example, large JSON or XML)

compression

Defines the compression format. Available options are auto, gzip & none. The use of the auto option (default), guesses the compression based on the file extension (.gz == gzip). The option none forces to ignore the extension and not attempt to decode. While gzip forces using the gzip decoder (for when you have a gzipped file with a nonstandard extension). We currently don't support any other compression formats for the extension.

options

For handling custom headers, custom separators, escape characters etc., options works in similar fashion to COPY command in PostgreSQL, parameter utilizes to blob_get function.

Return type

SETOF Record / anyelement

Note

There are four utility functions, called as a parameter within blob_get that help building values for it. Each utility function is designated for the decoder matching its name.

azure_storage.options_csv_get

The function acts as a utility function called as a parameter within blob_get, which is useful for decoding the csv content.

azure_storage.options_csv_get
        (delimiter text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,null_string text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,header boolean DEFAULT NULL::boolean
        ,quote text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,escape text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,force_not_null text[] DEFAULT NULL::text[]
        ,force_null text[] DEFAULT NULL::text[]
        ,content_encoding text DEFAULT NULL::text
        )
Returns jsonb;

Arguments

delimiter

Specifies the character that separates columns within each row (line) of the file. The default is a tab character in text format, a comma in CSV format. It must be a single 1-byte character.

null_string

Specifies the string that represents a null value. The default is \N (backslash-N) in text format, and an unquoted empty string in CSV format. You might prefer an empty string even in text format for cases where you don't want to distinguish nulls from empty strings.

Specifies that the file contains a header line with the names of each column in the file. On output, the initial line contains the column names from the table.

quote

Specifies the quoting character to be used when a data value is quoted. The default is double-quote. It must be a single 1-byte character.

escape

Specifies the character that should appear before a data character that matches the QUOTE value. The default is the same as the QUOTE value (so that the quoting character is doubled if it appears in the data). It must be a single 1-byte character.

force_not_null

Don't match the specified columns' values against the null string. In the default case where the null string is empty, it means that empty values are read as zero-length strings rather than nulls, even when they aren't quoted.

force_null

Match the specified columns' values against the null string, even if quoted, and if a match is found, set the value to NULL. In the default case where the null string is empty, it converts a quoted empty string into NULL.

content_encoding

Specifies that the file is encoded in the encoding_name. If the option is omitted, the current client encoding is used.

Return type

jsonb

azure_storage.options_copy

The function acts as a utility function called as a parameter within blob_get.

azure_storage.options_copy
        (delimiter text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,null_string text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,header boolean DEFAULT NULL::boolean
        ,quote text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,escape text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,force_quote text[] DEFAULT NULL::text[]
        ,force_not_null text[] DEFAULT NULL::text[]
        ,force_null text[] DEFAULT NULL::text[]
        ,content_encoding text DEFAULT NULL::text
        )
Returns jsonb;

Arguments

delimiter

Specifies the character that separates columns within each row (line) of the file. The default is a tab character in text format, a comma in CSV format. It must be a single 1-byte character.

null_string

Specifies the string that represents a null value. The default is \N (backslash-N) in text format, and an unquoted empty string in CSV format. You might prefer an empty string even in text format for cases where you don't want to distinguish nulls from empty strings.

header

Specifies that the file contains a header line with the names of each column in the file. On output, the initial line contains the column names from the table.

quote

Specifies the quoting character to be used when a data value is quoted. The default is double-quote. It must be a single 1-byte character.

escape

Specifies the character that should appear before a data character that matches the QUOTE value. The default is the same as the QUOTE value (so that the quoting character is doubled if it appears in the data). It must be a single 1-byte character.

force_quote

Forces quoting to be used for all non-NULL values in each specified column. NULL output is never quoted. If * is specified, non-NULL values are quoted in all columns.

force_not_null

Don't match the specified columns' values against the null string. In the default case where the null string is empty, it means that empty values are read as zero-length strings rather than nulls, even when they aren't quoted.

force_null

Match the specified columns' values against the null string, even if quoted, and if a match is found, set the value to NULL. In the default case where the null string is empty, it converts a quoted empty string into NULL.

content_encoding

Specifies that the file is encoded in the encoding_name. If the option is omitted, the current client encoding is used.

Return type

jsonb

azure_storage.options_tsv

The function acts as a utility function called as a parameter within blob_get. It's useful for decoding the tsv content.

azure_storage.options_tsv
        (delimiter text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,null_string text DEFAULT NULL::text
        ,content_encoding text DEFAULT NULL::text
        )
Returns jsonb;

Arguments

delimiter

Specifies the character that separates columns within each row (line) of the file. The default is a tab character in text format, a comma in CSV format. It must be a single 1-byte character.

null_string

Specifies the string that represents a null value. The default is \N (backslash-N) in text format, and an unquoted empty string in CSV format. You might prefer an empty string even in text format for cases where you don't want to distinguish nulls from empty strings.

content_encoding

Specifies that the file is encoded in the encoding_name. If the option is omitted, the current client encoding is used.

Return type

jsonb

azure_storage.options_binary

The function acts as a utility function called as a parameter within blob_get. It's useful for decoding the binary content.

azure_storage.options_binary
        (content_encoding text DEFAULT NULL::text)
Returns jsonb;

Arguments

content_encoding

Specifies that the file is encoded in the encoding_name. If this option is omitted, the current client encoding is used.

Return Type

jsonb

Examples

The examples used make use of sample Azure storage account (pgquickstart) with custom files uploaded for adding to coverage of different use cases. We can start by creating table used across the set of example used.

Note

You can list containers set to Private and Blob access levels for a storage but only as a user with the azure_storage_admin role granted to it. If you create a new user named support, it won't be allowed to access container contents by default.

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS public.events
        (
         event_id bigint
        ,event_type text
        ,event_public boolean
        ,repo_id bigint
        ,payload jsonb
        ,repo jsonb
        ,user_id bigint
        ,org jsonb
        ,created_at timestamp without time zone
        );

Add access key of storage account (mandatory for access level = private)

The example illustrates adding of access key for the storage account to get access for querying from a session on the Azure Database for PostgreSQL flexible server cluster.

SELECT azure_storage.account_add('pgquickstart', 'SECRET_ACCESS_KEY');

Tip

In your storage account, open Access keys. Copy the Storage account name and copy the Key from key1 section (you have to select Show next to the key first).

Remove access key of storage account

The example illustrates removing the access key for a storage account. This action would result in removing access to files hosted in private bucket in container.

SELECT azure_storage.account_remove('pgquickstart');

Add access for a role to Azure Blob storage

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.account_user_add('pgquickstart', 'support');

List all the roles with access on Azure Blob storage

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.account_list();

Remove the roles with access on Azure Blob storage

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.account_user_remove('pgquickstart', 'support');

List the objects within a public container

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.blob_list('pgquickstart','publiccontainer');

List the objects within a private container

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.blob_list('pgquickstart','privatecontainer');

Note

Adding access key is mandatory.

List the objects with specific string initials within public container

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.blob_list('pgquickstart','publiccontainer','e');

Alternatively

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.blob_list('pgquickstart','publiccontainer') WHERE path LIKE 'e%';

Read content from an object in a container

The blob_get function retrieves a file from blob storage. In order for blob_get to know how to parse the data you can either pass a value (NULL::table_name), which has same format as the file.

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.blob_get
        ('pgquickstart'
        ,'publiccontainer'
        ,'events.csv.gz'
        , NULL::events)
LIMIT 5;

Alternatively, we can explicitly define the columns in the FROM clause.

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.blob_get('pgquickstart','publiccontainer','events.csv')
AS res (
         event_id BIGINT
        ,event_type TEXT
        ,event_public BOOLEAN
        ,repo_id BIGINT
        ,payload JSONB
        ,repo JSONB
        ,user_id BIGINT
        ,org JSONB
        ,created_at TIMESTAMP WITHOUT TIME ZONE)
LIMIT 5;

Use decoder option

The example illustrates the use of decoder option. Normally format is inferred from the extension of the file, but when the file content doesn't have a matching extension you can pass the decoder argument.

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.blob_get
        ('pgquickstart'
        ,'publiccontainer'
        ,'events'
        , NULL::events
        , decoder := 'csv')
LIMIT 5;

Use compression with decoder option

The example shows how to enforce using the gzip compression on a gzip compressed file without a standard .gz extension.

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.blob_get
        ('pgquickstart'
        ,'publiccontainer'
        ,'events-compressed'
        , NULL::events
        , decoder := 'csv'
        , compression := 'gzip')
LIMIT 5;

Import filtered content & modify before loading from csv format object

The example illustrates the possibility to filter & modify the content being imported from object in container before loading that into a SQL table.

SELECT concat('P-',event_id::text) FROM azure_storage.blob_get
        ('pgquickstart'
        ,'publiccontainer'
        ,'events.csv'
        , NULL::events)
WHERE event_type='PushEvent'
LIMIT 5;

Query content from file with headers, custom separators, escape characters

You can use custom separators and escape characters by passing the result of azure_storage.options_copy to the options argument.

SELECT * FROM azure_storage.blob_get
        ('pgquickstart'
        ,'publiccontainer'
        ,'events_pipe.csv'
        ,NULL::events
        ,options := azure_storage.options_csv_get(delimiter := '|' , header := 'true')
        );

Aggregation query on content of an object in the container

This way you can query data without importing it.

SELECT event_type,COUNT(1) FROM azure_storage.blob_get
        ('pgquickstart'
        ,'publiccontainer'
        ,'events.csv'
        , NULL::events)
GROUP BY event_type
ORDER BY 2 DESC
LIMIT 5;