Quickstart: Create an Azure Database for PostgreSQL server by using the Azure CLI
APPLIES TO: Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Single Server
Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Single Server is on the retirement path. We strongly recommend for you to upgrade to Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Flexible Server. For more information about migrating to Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Flexible Server, see What's happening to Azure Database for PostgreSQL Single Server?
This quickstart shows how to use Azure CLI commands in Azure Cloud Shell to create a single Azure Database for PostgreSQL server in five minutes.
Consider using the simpler az postgres up Azure CLI command. Try out the quickstart.
If you don't have an Azure subscription, create an Azure free account before you begin.
Use the Bash environment in Azure Cloud Shell. For more information, see Quickstart for Bash in Azure Cloud Shell.
If you prefer to run CLI reference commands locally, install the Azure CLI. If you're running on Windows or macOS, consider running Azure CLI in a Docker container. For more information, see How to run the Azure CLI in a Docker container.
If you're using a local installation, sign in to the Azure CLI by using the az login command. To finish the authentication process, follow the steps displayed in your terminal. For other sign-in options, see Sign in with the Azure CLI.
When you're prompted, install the Azure CLI extension on first use. For more information about extensions, see Use extensions with the Azure CLI.
Run az version to find the version and dependent libraries that are installed. To upgrade to the latest version, run az upgrade.
Launch Azure Cloud Shell
The Azure Cloud Shell is a free interactive shell that you can use to run the steps in this article. It has common Azure tools preinstalled and configured to use with your account.
To open the Cloud Shell, just select Try it from the upper right corner of a code block. You can also launch Cloud Shell in a separate browser tab by going to https://shell.azure.com.
When Cloud Shell opens, verify that Bash is selected for your environment. Subsequent sessions will use Azure CLI in a Bash environment, Select Copy to copy the blocks of code, paste it into the Cloud Shell, and press Enter to run it.
Sign in to Azure
Cloud Shell is automatically authenticated under the initial account signed-in with. Use the following script to sign in using a different subscription, replacing
<Subscription ID> with your Azure Subscription ID. If you don't have an Azure subscription, create an Azure free account before you begin.
subscription="<subscriptionId>" # add subscription here az account set -s $subscription # ...or use 'az login'
For more information, see set active subscription or log in interactively
Set parameter values
The following values are used in subsequent commands to create the database and required resources. Server names need to be globally unique across all of Azure so the $RANDOM function is used to create the server name.
Change the location as appropriate for your environment. Replace
0.0.0.0 with the IP address range to match your specific environment. Use the public IP address of the computer you're using to restrict access to the server to only your IP address.
# Variable block let "randomIdentifier=$RANDOM*$RANDOM" location="East US" resourceGroup="msdocs-postgresql-rg-$randomIdentifier" tag="create-postgresql-server-and-firewall-rule" server="msdocs-postgresql-server-$randomIdentifier" sku="GP_Gen5_2" login="azureuser" password="Pa$$w0rD-$randomIdentifier" # Specify appropriate IP address values for your environment # to limit / allow access to the PostgreSQL server startIp=0.0.0.0 endIp=0.0.0.0 echo "Using resource group $resourceGroup with login: $login, password: $password..."
Create a resource group
Create a resource group with the az group create command. An Azure resource group is a logical container into which Azure resources are deployed and managed. The following example creates a resource group named myResourceGroup in the eastus location:
# Create a resource group echo "Creating $resourceGroup in $location..." az group create --name $resourceGroup --location "$location" --tags $tag
Create a server
Create a server with the az postgres server create command.
# Create a PostgreSQL server in the resource group # Name of a server maps to DNS name and is thus required to be globally unique in Azure. echo "Creating $server in $location..." az postgres server create --name $server --resource-group $resourceGroup --location "$location" --admin-user $login --admin-password $password --sku-name $sku
- The server name can contain only lowercase letters, numbers, and the hyphen (-) character. It must contain 3 to 63 characters. For more information, see Azure Database for PostgreSQL Naming Rules.
- The user name for the admin user can't be azure_superuser, admin, administrator, root, guest, or public.
- The password must contain 8 to 128 characters from three of the following categories: English uppercase letters, English lowercase letters, numbers, and non-alphanumeric characters.
- For information about SKUs, see Azure Database for PostgreSQL pricing.
- The default PostgreSQL version on your server is 9.6. To see all the versions supported, see Supported PostgreSQL major versions.
- SSL is enabled by default on your server. For more information on SSL, see Configure SSL connectivity.
Configure a server-based firewall rule
Create a firewall rule with the az postgres server firewall-rule create command to give your local environment access to connect to the server.
# Configure a firewall rule for the server echo "Configuring a firewall rule for $server for the IP address range of $startIp to $endIp" az postgres server firewall-rule create --resource-group $resourceGroup --server $server --name AllowIps --start-ip-address $startIp --end-ip-address $endIp
If you don't know your IP address, go to WhatIsMyIPAddress.com to get it.
To avoid connectivity issues, make sure your network's firewall allows port 5432. Azure Database for PostgreSQL servers use that port.
List server-based firewall rules
To list the existing server firewall rules, run the az postgres server firewall-rule list command.
# List firewall rules for the server echo "List of server-based firewall rules for $server" az postgres server firewall-rule list --resource-group $resourceGroup --server-name $server # You may use the switch `--output table` for a more readable table format as the output.
The output lists the firewall rules, if any, by default in JSON format. You may use the switch
--output table for a more readable table format as the output.
Get the connection information
To connect to your server, provide host information and access credentials.
az postgres server show --resource-group $resourceGroup --name $server
Make a note of the administratorLogin and fullyQualifiedDomainName values.
Connect to the Azure Database for PostgreSQL server by using psql
The psql client is a popular choice for connecting to PostgreSQL servers. You can connect to your server by using
psql with Azure Cloud Shell. You can also use
psql on your local environment if you have it available. An empty database, postgres, is automatically created with a new PostgreSQL server. You can use that database to connect with
psql, as shown in the following code.
psql --host=<server_name>.postgres.database.azure.com --port=5432 --username=<admin_user>@<server_name> --dbname=postgres
If you prefer to use a URL path to connect to Postgres, URL encode the @ sign in the username with
%40. For example, the connection string for psql would be:
Clean up resources
Use the following command to remove the resource group and all resources associated with it using the az group delete command - unless you have an ongoing need for these resources. Some of these resources may take a while to create, as well as to delete.
az group delete --name $resourceGroup
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