Run scripts in your Linux VM by using managed Run Commands

Applies to: ✔️ Linux VMs ✔️ Flexible scale sets

The Run Command feature uses the virtual machine (VM) agent to run scripts within an Azure Linux VM. You can use these scripts for general machine or application management. They can help you quickly diagnose and remediate VM access and network issues and get the VM back to a good state.

The updated managed Run Command uses the same VM agent channel to execute scripts and provides the following enhancements over the original action oriented Run Command:

  • Support for updated Run Command through ARM deployment template
  • Parallel execution of multiple scripts
  • Sequential execution of scripts
  • User specified script timeout
  • Support for long running (hours/days) scripts
  • Passing secrets (parameters, passwords) in a secure manner

Azure CLI

The following examples use az vm run-command to run shell script on an Azure Linux VM.

Execute a script with the VM

This command will deliver the script to the VM, execute it, and return the captured output.

az vm run-command create --name "myRunCommand" --vm-name "myVM" --resource-group "myRG" --script "echo Hello World!"

List all deployed RunCommand resources on a VM

This command will return a full list of previously deployed Run Commands along with their properties.

az vm run-command list --vm-name "myVM" --resource-group "myRG"

Get execution status and results

This command will retrieve current execution progress, including latest output, start/end time, exit code, and terminal state of the execution.

az vm run-command show --name "myRunCommand" --vm-name "myVM" --resource-group "myRG" --expand instanceView

Note

Output and error fields in instanceView is limited to last 4KB. If you'd like to access the full output and error, you have the option of forwarding the output and error data to storage append blobs using -outputBlobUri and -errorBlobUri parameters while executing Run Command using Set-AzVMRunCommand or Set-AzVMssRunCommand.

Delete RunCommand resource from the VM

Remove the RunCommand resource previously deployed on the VM. If the script execution is still in progress, execution will be terminated.

az vm run-command delete --name "myRunCommand" --vm-name "myVM" --resource-group "myRG"

PowerShell

Execute a script with the VM

This command will deliver the script to the VM, execute it, and return the captured output.

Set-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName "myRG" -VMName "myVM" -Location "EastUS" -RunCommandName "RunCommandName" –SourceScript "echo Hello World!"

Execute a script on the VM using SourceScriptUri parameter

OutputBlobUri and ErrorBlobUri are optional parameters.

Set-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName -VMName -RunCommandName -SourceScriptUri “< SAS URI of a storage blob with read access or public URI>" -OutputBlobUri “< SAS URI of a storage append blob with read, add, create, write access>” -ErrorBlobUri “< SAS URI of a storage append blob with read, add, create, write access>”

List all deployed RunCommand resources on a VM

This command will return a full list of previously deployed Run Commands along with their properties.

Get-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName "myRG" -VMName "myVM"

Get execution status and results

This command will retrieve current execution progress, including latest output, start/end time, exit code, and terminal state of the execution.

Get-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName "myRG" -VMName "myVM" -RunCommandName "RunCommandName" -Expand instanceView

Create or update Run Command on a VM using SourceScriptURI (storage blob SAS URL)

Create or update Run Command on a Windows VM using a SAS URL of a storage blob that contains a PowerShell script. SourceScriptUri can be a storage blob’s full SAS URL or public URL.

Note

The SAS URL must provide read access to the blob. An expiration time of 24 hours is suggested for the SAS URL. SAS URLs can be generated on Azure portal using blob's options, or SAS token using New-AzStorageBlobSASToken. If generating SAS token using New-AzStorageBlobSASToken, your SAS URL = "base blob URL" + "?" + "SAS token from New-AzStorageBlobSASToken"

Set-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName MyRG0 -VMName MyVMEE -RunCommandName MyRunCommand -Location EastUS2EUAP -SourceScriptUri <SourceScriptURI>

Get a Run Command Instance View for a VM after Creating or Updating Run Command

Get a Run Command for VM with Instance View. Instance View contains the execution state of Run Command (Succeeded, Failed, etc.), exit code, standard output and standard error generated by executing the script using Run Command. A non-zero ExitCode indicates an unsuccessful execution.

$x = Get-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName MyRG -VMName MyVM -RunCommandName MyRunCommand -Expand InstanceView
$x.InstanceView

Expected output:

ExecutionState   : Succeeded
ExecutionMessage :
ExitCode         : 0
Output           :   
output       : uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)
                   HelloWorld

Error            :
StartTime        : 10/27/2022 9:10:52 PM
EndTime          : 10/27/2022 9:10:55 PM
Statuses         :

InstanceView.ExecutionState -Status of user's Run Command script. Refer this state to know whether your script was successful or not.

ProvisioningState - Status of general extension provisioning end to end ( whether extension platform was able to trigger Run Command script or not).

Create or update Run Command on a VM using SourceScript (script text)

Create or update Run Command on a VM passing the script content directly to -SourceScript parameter. Use ; to separate multiple commands.

Set-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName MyRG0 -VMName MyVML -RunCommandName MyRunCommand2 -Location EastUS2EUAP -SourceScript "id; echo HelloWorld"

Create or update Run Command on a VM using SourceCommandId

Create or update Run Command on a VM using pre-existing commandId. Available commandIds can be retrieved using Get-AzVMRunCommandDocument.

Set-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName MyRG0 -VMName MyVMEE -RunCommandName MyRunCommand -Location EastUS2EUAP -SourceCommandId ipconfig

Create or update Run Command on a VM using OutputBlobUri, ErrorBlobUri to stream standard output and standard error messages to output and error Append blobs

Create or update Run Command on a VM and stream standard output and standard error messages to output and error Append blobs.

Set-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName MyRG0 -VMName MyVML -RunCommandName MyRunCommand3 -Location EastUS2EUAP EastUS2EUAP -SourceScriptUri <SourceScriptUri> -OutputBlobUri <OutputBlobUri> -ErrorBlobUri <errorbloburi>

Note

Output and error blobs must be of type AppendBlob and their SAS URLs must provide read, append, create, write access to the blob. An expiration time of 24 hours is suggested for the SAS URL. If output or error blob does not exist, a blob of type AppendBlob will be created. SAS URLs can be generated on Azure portal using blob's options, or SAS token using New-AzStorageBlobSASToken. If generating SAS token using New-AzStorageBlobSASToken, SAS URL = base blob URL + "?" + SAS token from New-AzStorageBlobSASToken.

Create or update Run Command on a VM, run the Run Command as a different user using RunAsUser and RunAsPassword parameters

Create or update Run Command on a VM, run the Run Command as a different user using RunAsUser and RunAsPassword parameters. For RunAs to work properly, contact admin of VM and make sure user is added on the VM, user has access to resources accessed by the Run Command (Directories, Files, Network etc.), and in case of Windows VM, 'Secondary Logon' service is running on the VM.

Set-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName MyRG0 -VMName MyVMEE -RunCommandName MyRunCommand -Location EastUS2EUAP EastUS2EUAP -SourceScriptUri <SourceScriptUri> -RunAsUser myusername -RunAsPassword mypassword

Create or update Run Command on a Virtual Machine Scale Sets resource using SourceScriptUri (storage blob SAS URL).

Create or update Run Command on a Virtual Machine Scale Sets resource using a SAS URL of a storage blob that contains a bash script.

Set-AzVmssVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName MyRG0 -VMScaleSetName MyVMSS -InstanceId 0 -RunCommandName MyRunCommand -Location EastUS2EUAP -SourceScriptUri <SourceScriptUri>

Note

Note SAS URL must provide read access to the blob. An expiration time of 24 hours is suggested for SAS URL. SAS URLs can be generated on Azure portal using blob's options, or SAS token using New-AzStorageBlobSASToken. If generating SAS token using New-AzStorageBlobSASToken, SAS URL = base blob URL + "?" + SAS token from New-AzStorageBlobSASToken.

Create or update Run Command on a VM instance using Parameter and ProtectedParameter parameters (Public and Protected Parameters to script)

$PublicParametersArray = @([Microsoft.Azure.PowerShell.Cmdlets.Compute.Models.Api20210701.IRunCommandInputParameter]@{name='publicParam1';value='publicParam1value'},
>> [Microsoft.Azure.PowerShell.Cmdlets.Compute.Models.Api20210701.IRunCommandInputParameter]@{name='publicParam2';value='publicParam2value'})

$ProtectedParametersArray = @([Microsoft.Azure.PowerShell.Cmdlets.Compute.Models.Api20210701.IRunCommandInputParameter]@{name='secret1';value='secret1value'},
>> [Microsoft.Azure.PowerShell.Cmdlets.Compute.Models.Api20210701.IRunCommandInputParameter]@{name='secret2';value='secret2value'})

Set-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName MyRG0 -VMName MyVMEE -RunCommandName MyRunCommand -Location EastUS2EUAP -SourceScriptUri <SourceScriptUri> -Parameter $PublicParametersArray -ProtectedParameter $ProtectedParametersArray

Use ProtectedParameter to pass any sensitive inputs to script such as passwords, keys etc.

  • Windows: Parameters and ProtectedParameters are passed to script as arguments are passed to script and run like this myscript.ps1 -publicParam1 publicParam1value -publicParam2 publicParam2value -secret1 secret1value -secret2 secret2value
  • Linux: Named Parameters and its values are set to environment config, which should be accessible within the .sh script. For Nameless arguments, pass an empty string to name input. Nameless arguments are passed to script and run like this - myscript.sh publicParam1value publicParam2value secret1value secret2value

Delete RunCommand resource from the VM

Remove the RunCommand resource previously deployed on the VM. If the script execution is still in progress, execution will be terminated.

Remove-AzVMRunCommand -ResourceGroupName "myRG" -VMName "myVM" -RunCommandName "RunCommandName"

REST API

To deploy a new Run Command, execute a PUT on the VM directly and specify a unique name for the Run Command instance.

GET /subscriptions/<subscriptionId>/resourceGroups/<resourceGroupName>/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/<vmName>/runcommands?api-version=2019-12-01
{ 
"location": "<location>", 
"properties": { 
    "source": { 
        "script": "Write-Host Hello World!", 
        "scriptUri": "<SAS URI of a storage blob with read access or public URI>",  
        "commandId": "<Id>"  
        }, 
    "parameters": [ 
        { 
            "name": "param1",
            "value": "value1" 
            }, 
        { 
            "name": "param2", 
            "value": "value2" 
            } 
        ], 
    "protectedParameters": [ 
        { 
            "name": "secret1", 
            "value": "value1" 
            }, 
        { 
            "name": "secret2", 
            "value": "value2" 
            } 
        ], 
    "runAsUser": "userName",
    "runAsPassword": "userPassword", 
    "timeoutInSeconds": 3600, 
    "outputBlobUri": "< SAS URI of a storage append blob with read, add, create, write access>", 
    "errorBlobUri": "< SAS URI of a storage append blob with read, add, create, write access >"  
    }
}

Notes

  • You can provide an inline script, a script URI, or a built-in script command ID as the input source. Script URI is either storage blob SAS URI with read access or public URI.
  • Only one type of source input is supported for one command execution.
  • Run Command supports writing output and error to Storage blobs using outputBlobUri and errorBlobUri parameters, which can be used to store large script outputs. Use SAS URI of a storage append blob with read, add, create, write access. The blob should be of type AppendBlob. Writing the script output or error blob would fail otherwise. The blob will be overwritten if it already exists. It will be created if it does not exist.

List running instances of Run Command on a VM

GET /subscriptions/<subscriptionId>/resourceGroups/<resourceGroupName>/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/<vmName>/runcommands?api-version=2019-12-01

Get output details for a specific Run Command deployment

GET /subscriptions/<subscriptionId>/resourceGroups/<resourceGroupName>/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/<vmName>/runcommands/<runCommandName>?$expand=instanceView&api-version=2019-12-01 

Delete a specific Run Command deployment

Delete the instance of Run Command

DELETE /subscriptions/<subscriptionId>/resourceGroups/<resourceGroupName>/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/<vmName>/runcommands/<runCommandName>?api-version=2019-12-01 

Deploy scripts in an ordered sequence

To deploy scripts sequentially, use a deployment template, specifying a dependsOn relationship between sequential scripts.

{ 
    "type":"Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/runCommands",
    "name":"secondRunCommand",
    "apiVersion":"2019-12-01",
    "location":"[parameters('location')]",
    "dependsOn":<full resourceID of the previous other Run Command>,
    "properties":{
        "source":{
            "script":"echo Hello World!" 
        },
        "timeoutInSeconds":60
    }
}

Execute multiple Run Commands sequentially

By default, if you deploy multiple RunCommand resources using deployment template, they will be executed simultaneously on the VM. If you have a dependency on the scripts and a preferred order of execution, you can use the dependsOn property to make them run sequentially.

In this example, secondRunCommand will execute after firstRunCommand.

{
   "$schema":"https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
   "contentVersion":"1.0.0.0",
   "resources":[
      {
         "type":"Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/runCommands",
         "name":"[concat(parameters('vmName'),'/firstRunCommand')]",
         "apiVersion":"2019-12-01",
         "location":"[parameters('location')]",
         "dependsOn":[
            "[concat('Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/', parameters('vmName'))]"
         ],
         "properties":{
            "source":{
               "script":"echo First: Hello World!"
            },
            "parameters":[
               {
                  "name":"param1",
                  "value":"value1"
               },
               {
                  "name":"param2",
                  "value":"value2"
               }
            ],
            "timeoutInSeconds":20
         }
      },
      {
         "type":"Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/runCommands",
         "name":"[concat(parameters('vmName'),'/secondRunCommand')]",
         "apiVersion":"2019-12-01",
         "location":"[parameters('location')]",
         "dependsOn":[
            "[concat('Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/', parameters('vmName'),'runcommands/firstRunCommand')]"
         ],
         "properties":{
            "source":{
               "scriptUri":"http://github.com/myscript.ps1"
            },
            "timeoutInSeconds":60
         }
      }
   ]
}

Next steps

To learn about other ways to run scripts and commands remotely in your VM, see Run scripts in your Linux VM.