How to expand virtual hard disks attached to a Windows virtual machine

Applies to: ✔️ Windows VMs ✔️ Flexible scale sets

When you create a new virtual machine (VM) in a resource group by deploying an image from Azure Marketplace, the default operating system (OS) disk is usually 127 GiB (some images have smaller OS disk sizes by default). You can add data disks to your VM (the amount depends on the VM SKU you selected) and we recommend installing applications and CPU-intensive workloads on data disks. You may need to expand the OS disk if you're supporting a legacy application that installs components on the OS disk or if you're migrating a physical PC or VM from on-premises that has a larger OS disk. This article covers expanding either OS disks or data disks.

Important

Unless you use Expand without downtime, expanding a data disk requires the VM to be deallocated.

Shrinking an existing disk isn’t supported and may result in data loss.

After expanding the disks, you need to Expand the volume in the operating system to take advantage of the larger disk.

Expand without downtime

You can now expand your data disks without deallocating your VM.

This feature has the following limitations:

  • Only available with particular VM SKUs.
  • Only supported for data disks.
  • If a disk is 4 TiB or less, you can't expand it beyond 4 TiB without deallocating the VM. If a disk is already greater than 4 TiB, you can expand it without deallocating the VM.
  • Not supported for Ultra disks or Premium SSD v2 disks.
  • Not supported for shared disks.
  • Install and use either:

Use the following PowerShell script to determine which VM SKUs it's available with:

Connect-AzAccount
$subscriptionId="yourSubID"
$location="desiredRegion"
Set-AzContext -Subscription $subscriptionId
$vmSizes=Get-AzComputeResourceSku -Location $location | where{$_.ResourceType -eq 'virtualMachines'}

foreach($vmSize in $vmSizes){
    foreach($capability in $vmSize.Capabilities)
    {
       if(($capability.Name -eq "EphemeralOSDiskSupported" -and $capability.Value -eq "True") -or ($capability.Name -eq "PremiumIO" -and $capability.Value -eq "True") -or ($capability.Name -eq "HyperVGenerations" -and $capability.Value -match "V2"))
        {
            $vmSize.Name
       }
   }
}

Resize a managed disk in the Azure portal

Important

If your disk meets the requirements in Expand without downtime, you can skip step 1.

  1. In the Azure portal, go to the virtual machine in which you want to expand the disk. Select Stop to deallocate the VM.

  2. In the left menu under Settings, select Disks.

    Screenshot that shows the Disks option selected in the Settings section of the menu.

  3. Under Disk name, select the disk you want to expand.

    Screenshot that shows the Disks pane with a disk name selected.

  4. In the left menu under Settings, select Size + performance.

    Screenshot that shows the Size and performance option selected in the Settings section of the menu.

  5. In Size + performance, select the disk size you want.

    Warning

    The new size should be greater than the existing disk size. The maximum allowed is 4,095 GB for OS disks. (It's possible to expand the VHD blob beyond that size, but the OS works only with the first 4,095 GB of space.)

    Screenshot that shows the Size and performance pane with the disk size selected.

  6. Select Resize at the bottom of the page.

    Screenshot that shows the Size and performance pane with the Resize button selected.

Resize a managed disk by using PowerShell

Open your PowerShell ISE or PowerShell window in administrative mode and follow the steps below:

Sign in to your Microsoft Azure account in resource management mode and select your subscription:

Connect-AzAccount
Select-AzSubscription –SubscriptionName 'my-subscription-name'

Set your resource group name and VM name:

$rgName = 'my-resource-group-name'
$vmName = 'my-vm-name'
$diskName = 'my-disk-name'

Obtain a reference to your VM:

$vm = Get-AzVM -ResourceGroupName $rgName -Name $vmName

Important

If your disk meets the requirements in expand without downtime, you can skip step 4 and 6.

Stop the VM before resizing the disk:

Stop-AzVM -ResourceGroupName $rgName -Name $vmName

Obtain a reference to the managed OS disk. Set the size of the managed OS disk to the desired value and update the Disk:

$disk= Get-AzDisk -ResourceGroupName $rgName -DiskName $diskName
$disk.DiskSizeGB = 1023
Update-AzDisk -ResourceGroupName $rgName -Disk $disk -DiskName $disk.Name

Warning

The new size should be greater than the existing disk size. The maximum allowed is 4,095 GB for OS disks. (It is possible to expand the VHD blob beyond that size, but the OS works only with the first 4,095 GB of space.)

Updating the VM might take a few seconds. When the command finishes executing, restart the VM:

Start-AzVM -ResourceGroupName $rgName -Name $vmName

Remote into the VM, open Computer Management (or Disk Management) and expand the drive using the newly allocated space.

Expand the volume in the operating system

When you've expanded the disk for the VM, you need to go into the OS and expand the volume to encompass the new space. There are several methods for expanding a partition. This section covers connecting the VM using an RDP connection to expand the partition using Using Diskpart or Using Disk Manager.

Using DiskPart

When you've expanded the disk for the VM, you need to go into the OS and expand the volume to encompass the new space. There are several methods for expanding a partition. This section covers connecting the VM using an RDP connection to expand the partition using DiskPart.

  1. Open an RDP connection to your VM.

  2. Open a command prompt and type diskpart.

  3. At the DISKPART prompt, type list volume. Make note of the volume you want to extend.

  4. At the DISKPART prompt, type select volume <volumenumber>. This selects the volume volumenumber that you want to extend into contiguous, empty space on the same disk.

  5. At the DISKPART prompt, type extend [size=<size>]. This extends the selected volume by size in megabytes (MB).

Using Disk Manager

  1. Start a remote desktop session with the VM.

  2. Open Disk Management.

    Screenshot showing Disk Management.

  3. Right-click on existing C: drive partition -> Extend Volume.

    Screenshot showing how to extend the volume.

  4. Follow the steps you should be able to see the disk with updated capacity:

    Screenshot showing the larger C: volume in Disk Manager.

Next steps

You can also attach disks using the Azure portal.