# Financial.NPer(Double, Double, Double, Double, DueDate) Method

## Definition

Returns a value specifying the number of periods for an annuity based on periodic fixed payments and a fixed interest rate.

public static double NPer (double Rate, double Pmt, double PV, double FV = 0, Microsoft.VisualBasic.DueDate Due = Microsoft.VisualBasic.DueDate.EndOfPeriod);
static member NPer : double * double * double * double * Microsoft.VisualBasic.DueDate -> double
Public Function NPer (Rate As Double, Pmt As Double, PV As Double, Optional FV As Double = 0, Optional Due As DueDate = Microsoft.VisualBasic.DueDate.EndOfPeriod) As Double

#### Parameters

Rate
Double

Required. The interest rate per period. For example, if you get a car loan at an annual percentage rate (APR) of 10 percent and make monthly payments, the rate per period is 0.1/12, or 0.0083.

Pmt
Double

Required. The payment to be made each period. Payments usually contain principal and interest that does not change over the life of the annuity.

PV
Double

Required. The present value, or value today, of a series of future payments or receipts. For example, when you borrow money to buy a car, the loan amount is the present value to the lender of the monthly car payments you will make.

FV
Double

Optional. The future value or cash balance you want after you have made the final payment. For example, the future value of a loan is $0 because that is its value after the final payment. However, if you want to save$50,000 over 18 years for your child's education, then \$50,000 is the future value. If omitted, 0 is assumed.

Due
DueDate

Optional. Object of type DueDate that specifies when payments are due. This argument must be either DueDate.EndOfPeriod if payments are due at the end of the payment period, or DueDate.BegOfPeriod if payments are due at the beginning of the period. If omitted, DueDate.EndOfPeriod is assumed.

#### Returns

The number of periods for an annuity based on periodic fixed payments and a fixed interest rate.

#### Exceptions

Rate = 0 and Pmt = 0

## Examples

This example uses the NPer function to return the number of periods during which payments must be made to pay off a loan whose value is contained in PVal. Also provided are the interest percentage rate per period (APR / 12), the payment (Payment), the future value of the loan (FVal), and a number that indicates whether the payment is due at the beginning or end of the payment period (PayType).

Sub TestNPer()
Dim TotPmts As Double
Dim PVal, APR, Payment As Double
Dim PayType As DueDate
Dim Response As MsgBoxResult

' Usually 0 for a loan.
Dim Fval As Double = 0
PVal = CDbl(InputBox("How much do you want to borrow?"))
APR = CDbl(InputBox("What is the annual percentage rate of your loan?"))
' Usually 0 for a loan.
If APR > 1 Then APR = APR / 100
Payment = CDbl(InputBox("How much do you want to pay each month?"))
Response = MsgBox("Do you make payments at the end of month?", MsgBoxStyle.YesNo)
If Response = MsgBoxResult.No Then
PayType = DueDate.BegOfPeriod
Else
PayType = DueDate.EndOfPeriod
End If
TotPmts = NPer(APR / 12, -Payment, PVal, FVal, PayType)
If Int(TotPmts) <> TotPmts Then TotPmts = Int(TotPmts) + 1

MsgBox("It will take you " & TotPmts & " months to pay off your loan.")
End Sub


## Remarks

An annuity is a series of fixed cash payments made over a period of time. An annuity can be a loan (such as a home mortgage) or an investment (such as a monthly savings plan).

For all arguments, cash paid out (such as deposits to savings) is represented by negative numbers; cash received (such as dividend checks) is represented by positive numbers.