How to manage .NET tools

This article applies to: ✔️ .NET Core 2.1 SDK and later versions.

A .NET tool is a special NuGet package that contains a console application. You can install a tool on your machine in the following ways:

  • As a global tool.

    The tool binaries are installed in a default directory that's added to the PATH environment variable. You can invoke the tool from any directory on the machine without specifying its location. One version of a tool is used for all directories on the machine.

  • As a global tool in a custom location (also known as a tool-path tool).

    The tool binaries are installed in a location that you specify. You can invoke the tool from the installation directory, by providing the directory with the command name, or by adding the directory to the PATH environment variable. One version of a tool is used for all directories on the machine.

  • As a local tool (applies to .NET Core SDK 3.0 and later versions).

    The tool binaries are installed in a default directory. You can invoke the tool from the installation directory or any of its subdirectories. Different directories can use different versions of the same tool.

    The .NET CLI uses manifest files to keep track of tools that are installed as local to a directory. When the manifest file is saved in the root directory of a source code repository, a contributor can clone the repository and invoke a single .NET CLI command to install all of the tools listed in the manifest files.

Important

.NET tools run in full trust. Don't install a .NET tool unless you trust the author.

Find a tool

Here are some ways to find tools:

Check the author and statistics

.NET tools can be powerful because they run in full trust, and global tools are added to the PATH environment variable. Don't download tools from people you don't trust.

If the tool is hosted on NuGet, you can check the author and statistics by searching for the tool.

Install a global tool

To install a tool as a global tool, use the -g or --global option of dotnet tool install, as shown in the following example:

dotnet tool install -g dotnetsay

The output shows the command used to invoke the tool and the version installed, similar to the following example:

You can invoke the tool using the following command: dotnetsay
Tool 'dotnetsay' (version '2.1.4') was successfully installed.

The default location for a tool's binaries depends on the operating system:

OS Path
Linux/macOS $HOME/.dotnet/tools
Windows %USERPROFILE%\.dotnet\tools

This location is added to the user's path when the SDK is first run. So global tools can be invoked from any directory without specifying the tool location.

Tool access is user-specific, not machine global. A global tool is only available to the user that installed the tool.

Install a global tool in a custom location

To install a tool as a global tool in a custom location, use the --tool-path option of dotnet tool install, as shown in the following examples:

On Windows:

dotnet tool install dotnetsay --tool-path c:\dotnet-tools

On Linux or macOS:

dotnet tool install dotnetsay --tool-path ~/bin

The .NET SDK doesn't add this location automatically to the PATH environment variable. To invoke a tool-path tool, you must ensure that the command is available by using one of the following methods:

  • Add the installation directory to the PATH environment variable.
  • Specify the full path to the tool when you invoke it.
  • Invoke the tool from within the installation directory.

Install a local tool

Applies to .NET Core 3.0 SDK and later.

If you want to install a tool for local access only (for the current directory and subdirectories), you must add the tool to a tool manifest file. To create a tool manifest file, run the dotnet new tool-manifest command:

dotnet new tool-manifest

This command creates a manifest file named dotnet-tools.json under the .config directory. To add a local tool to the manifest file, use the dotnet tool install command and omit the --global and --tool-path options, as shown in the following example:

dotnet tool install dotnetsay

The command output shows in which manifest file the newly installed tool is present, similar to the following example:

You can invoke the tool from this directory using the following command:
dotnet tool run dotnetsay
Tool 'dotnetsay' (version '2.1.4') was successfully installed.
Entry is added to the manifest file /home/name/botsay/.config/dotnet-tools.json.

The following example shows a manifest file with two local tools installed:

{
  "version": 1,
  "isRoot": true,
  "tools": {
    "botsay": {
      "version": "1.0.0",
      "commands": [
        "botsay"
      ]
    },
    "dotnetsay": {
      "version": "2.1.3",
      "commands": [
        "dotnetsay"
      ]
    }
  }
}

You typically add a local tool to the root directory of the repository. After you check in the manifest file to the repository, developers who check out code from the repository get the latest manifest file. To install all of the tools listed in the manifest file, they run the dotnet tool restore command:

dotnet tool restore

The output indicates the restored tools:

Tool 'botsay' (version '1.0.0') was restored. Available commands: botsay
Tool 'dotnetsay' (version '2.1.3') was restored. Available commands: dotnetsay
Restore was successful.

Install a specific tool version

To install a pre-release version or a specific version of a tool, specify the version number by using the --version option, as shown in the following example:

dotnet tool install dotnetsay --version 2.1.3

To install a pre-release version of the tool without specifying the exact version number, use the --version option and provide a wildcard, as shown in the following example:

dotnet tool install --global dotnetsay --version "*-rc*"

Use a tool

The command that you use to invoke a tool might be different from the name of the package that you install. To display all of the tools currently installed on the machine for the current user, use the dotnet tool list command:

dotnet tool list

The output shows each tool's version and command, similar to the following example:

Package Id      Version      Commands       Manifest
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
botsay          1.0.0        botsay         /home/name/repository/.config/dotnet-tools.json
dotnetsay       2.1.3        dotnetsay      /home/name/repository/.config/dotnet-tools.json

As shown in the preceding example, the list shows local tools. To see global tools, use the --global option. To see tool-path tools, use the --tool-path option.

Invoke a global tool

For global tools, use the tool command by itself. For example, if the command is dotnetsay or dotnet-doc, that's what you use to invoke the global tool:

dotnetsay
dotnet-doc

If the command begins with the prefix dotnet-, an alternative way to invoke the tool is to use the dotnet command and omit the tool command prefix. For example, if the command is dotnet-doc, the following command invokes the tool:

dotnet doc

However, in the following scenario you can't use the dotnet command to invoke a global tool:

  • A global tool and a local tool have the same command prefixed by dotnet-.
  • You want to invoke the global tool from a directory that's in scope for the local tool.

In this scenario, dotnet doc and dotnet dotnet-doc invoke the local tool. To invoke the global tool, use the command by itself:

dotnet-doc

Invoke a tool-path tool

To invoke a global tool that's installed by using the tool-path option, ensure that the command is available as explained earlier in this article.

Invoke a local tool

To invoke a local tool, you must use the dotnet command from within the installation directory. You can use the long form (dotnet tool run <COMMAND_NAME>) or the short form (dotnet <COMMAND_NAME>), as shown in the following examples:

dotnet tool run dotnetsay
dotnet dotnetsay

If the command is prefixed by dotnet-, you can include or omit the prefix when you invoke the tool. For example, if the command is dotnet-doc, any of the following examples invokes the local tool:

dotnet tool run dotnet-doc
dotnet dotnet-doc
dotnet doc

Update a tool

Updating a tool involves uninstalling and reinstalling it with the latest stable version. To update a tool, use the dotnet tool update command with the same option that you used to install the tool:

dotnet tool update --global <packagename>
dotnet tool update --tool-path <packagename>
dotnet tool update <packagename>

For a local tool, the SDK looks in the current directory and parent directories to find the first manifest file containing the package ID. If there's no such package ID in any manifest file, the SDK adds a new entry to the closest manifest file.

Uninstall a tool

Uninstall a tool by using the dotnet tool uninstall command with the same option that you used to install the tool:

dotnet tool uninstall --global <packagename>
dotnet tool uninstall --tool-path <packagename>
dotnet tool uninstall <packagename>

For a local tool, the SDK looks in the current directory and parent directories to find the first manifest file containing the package ID.

Get help and troubleshoot

If a tool fails to install or run, see Troubleshoot .NET tool usage issues. You can get a list of available dotnet tool commands and parameters by using the --help parameter:

dotnet tool --help

To get tool usage instructions, enter one of the following commands or see the tool's website:

<command> --help
dotnet <command> --help

See also