# checked and unchecked statements (C# reference)

The checked and unchecked statements specify the overflow-checking context for integral-type arithmetic operations and conversions. When integer arithmetic overflow occurs, the overflow-checking context defines what happens. In a checked context, a System.OverflowException is thrown; if overflow happens in a constant expression, a compile-time error occurs. In an unchecked context, the operation result is truncated by discarding any high-order bits that don't fit in the destination type. For example, in the case of addition it wraps from the maximum value to the minimum value. The following example shows both the same operation in both a checked and unchecked context:

uint a = uint.MaxValue;

unchecked
{
Console.WriteLine(a + 1);  // output: 0
}

try
{
checked
{
Console.WriteLine(a + 1);
}
}
catch (OverflowException e)
{
Console.WriteLine(e.Message);  // output: Arithmetic operation resulted in an overflow.
}


Note

The behavior of user-defined operators and conversions in the case of the overflow of the corresponding result type can differ from the one described in the previous paragraph. In particular, user-defined checked operators might not throw an exception in a checked context.

For more information, see the Arithmetic overflow and division by zero and User-defined checked operators sections of the Arithmetic operators article.

To specify the overflow-checking context for an expression, you can also use the checked and unchecked operators, as the following example shows:

double a = double.MaxValue;

int b = unchecked((int)a);
Console.WriteLine(b);  // output: -2147483648

try
{
b = checked((int)a);
}
catch (OverflowException e)
{
Console.WriteLine(e.Message);  // output: Arithmetic operation resulted in an overflow.
}


The checked and unchecked statements and operators only affect the overflow-checking context for those operations that are textually inside the statement block or operator's parentheses, as the following example shows:

int Multiply(int a, int b) => a * b;

int factor = 2;

try
{
checked
{
Console.WriteLine(Multiply(factor, int.MaxValue));  // output: -2
}
}
catch (OverflowException e)
{
Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
}

try
{
checked
{
Console.WriteLine(Multiply(factor, factor * int.MaxValue));
}
}
catch (OverflowException e)
{
Console.WriteLine(e.Message);  // output: Arithmetic operation resulted in an overflow.
}


At the preceding example, the first invocation of the Multiply local function shows that the checked statement doesn't affect the overflow-checking context within the Multiply function as no exception is thrown. At the second invocation of the Multiply function, the expression that calculates the second argument of the function is evaluated in a checked context and results in an exception as it's textually inside the block of the checked statement.

## Operations affected by the overflow-checking context

The overflow-checking context affects the following operations:

## Default overflow-checking context

If you don't specify the overflow-checking context, the value of the CheckForOverflowUnderflow compiler option defines the default context for non-constant expressions. By default the value of that option is unset and integral-type arithmetic operations and conversions are executed in an unchecked context.

Constant expressions are evaluated by default in a checked context and a compile-time error occurs in the case of an overflow. You can explicitly specify an unchecked context for a constant expression with the unchecked statement or operator.

## C# language specification

For more information, see the following sections of the C# language specification: