.NET Multi-platform App UI (.NET MAUI) provides a collection of cross-platform controls that can be used to display data, initiate actions, indicate activity, display collections, pick data, and more. Each control has an interface representation that abstracts the control. Cross-platform controls that implement these interfaces are known as virtual views. Handlers map these virtual views to controls on each platform, which are known as native views. Handlers are also responsible for instantiating the underlying native view, and mapping the cross-platform control API to the native view API. For example, on iOS a handler maps a .NET MAUI Button to an iOS UIButton. On Android, the Button is mapped to an AppCompatButton:

Button handler architecture.

.NET MAUI handlers are accessed through their control-specific interface, such as IButton for a Button. This avoids the cross-platform control having to reference its handler, and the handler having to reference the cross-platform control.

Each handler class exposes the native view for the cross-platform control via its PlatformView property. This property can be accessed to set native view properties, invoke native view methods, and subscribe to native view events. In addition, the cross-platform control implemented by the handler is exposed via its VirtualView property.

When you create a cross-platform control whose implementation is provided on each platform by native views, you should implement a handler that maps the cross-platform control API to the native view APIs. For more information, see Create custom controls with handlers.

You can also customize handlers to augment the appearance and behavior of existing cross-platform controls beyond the customization that's possible through the control's API. This handler customization modifies the native views for the cross-platform control. Handlers are global, and customizing a handler for a control will result in all controls of the same type being customized in your app. For more information, see Customize .NET MAUI controls with handlers.


A key concept of .NET MAUI handlers is mappers. Each handler typically provides a property mapper, and sometimes a command mapper, that maps the cross-platform control's API to the native view's API.

A property mapper defines what Actions to take when a property change occurs in the cross-platform control. It's a Dictionary that maps the cross-platform control's properties to their associated Actions. Each platform handler then provides implementations of the Actions, which manipulate the native view API. This ensures that when a property is set on a cross-platform control, the underlying native view is updated as required.

A command mapper defines what Actions to take when the cross-platform control sends commands to native views. They're similar to property mappers, but allow for additional data to be passed. A command in this context doesn't mean an ICommand implementation. Instead, a command is just an instruction, and optionally its data, that's sent to a native view. The command mapper is a Dictionary that maps the cross-platform control's command to their associated Actions. Each handler then provides implementations of the Actions, which manipulate the native view API. This ensures that when a cross-platform control sends a command to its native view, the native view is updated as required. For example, when a ScrollView is scrolled, the ScrollViewHandler uses a command mapper to invoke an Action that accepts a scroll position argument. The Action then instructs the underlying native view to scroll to that position.

The advantage of using mappers to update native views is that native views can be decoupled from cross-platform controls. This removes the need for native views to subscribe to and unsubscribe from cross-platform control events. It also allows for easy customization because mappers can be modified without subclassing.

Handler lifecycle

All handler-based .NET MAUI controls support two handler lifecycle events:

  • HandlerChanging is raised when a new handler is about to be created for a cross-platform control, and when an existing handler is about to be removed from a cross-platform control. The HandlerChangingEventArgs object that accompanies this event has NewHandler and OldHandler properties, of type IElementHandler. When the NewHandler property isn't null, the event indicates that a new handler is about to be created for a cross-platform control. When the OldHandler property isn't null, the event indicates that the existing native control is about be removed from the cross-platform control, and therefore any native events should be unwired and other cleanup performed.
  • HandlerChanged is raised after the handler for a cross-platform control has been created. This event indicates that the native control that implements the cross-platform control is available, and all the property values set on the cross-platform control have been applied to the native control.


The HandlerChanging event is raised on a cross-platform control before the HandlerChanged event.

In addition to these events, each cross-platform control also has an overridable OnHandlerChanging method that's invoked when the HandlerChanging event is raised, and a OnHandlerChanged method that's invoked when the HandlerChanged event is raised.

View handlers

The following table lists the types that implement views in .NET MAUI:

View Interface Handler Property Mapper Command Mapper
ActivityIndicator IActivityIndicator ActivityIndicatorHandler Mapper CommandMapper
BlazorWebView IBlazorWebView BlazorWebViewHandler BlazorWebViewMapper
Border IBorderView BorderHandler Mapper CommandMapper
BoxView IShapeView, IShape ShapeViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Button IButton ButtonHandler ImageButtonMapper, TextButtonMapper, Mapper CommandMapper
CarouselView CarouselViewHandler Mapper
Cell CellRenderer Mapper CommandMapper
CheckBox ICheckBox CheckBoxHandler Mapper CommandMapper
CollectionView CollectionViewHandler <Mapper
ContentView IContentView ContentViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
DatePicker IDatePicker DatePickerHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Editor IEditor EditorHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Ellipse IShape ShapeViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Entry IEntry EntryHandler Mapper CommandMapper
EntryCell EntryCellRenderer Mapper CommandMapper
Frame FrameRenderer Mapper CommandMapper
GraphicsView IGraphicsView GraphicsViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Image IImage ImageHandler Mapper CommandMapper
ImageButton IImageButton ImageButtonHandler ImageMapper, Mapper
ImageCell ImageCellRenderer Mapper CommandMapper
IndicatorView IIndicatorView IndicatorViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Label ILabel LabelHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Line IShape LineHandler Mapper CommandMapper
ListView ListViewRenderer Mapper CommandMapper
Map IMap MapHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Path IShape PathHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Picker IPicker PickerHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Polygon IShape PolygonHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Polyline IShape PolylineHandler Mapper CommandMapper
ProgressBar IProgress ProgressBarHandler Mapper CommandMapper
RadioButton IRadioButton RadioButtonHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Rectangle IShape RectangleHandler Mapper CommandMapper
RefreshView IRefreshView RefreshViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
RoundRectangle IShape RoundRectangleHandler Mapper CommandMapper
ScrollView IScrollView ScrollViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
SearchBar ISearchBar SearchBarHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Slider ISlider SliderHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Stepper IStepper StepperHandler Mapper CommandMapper
SwipeView ISwipeView SwipeViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Switch ISwitch SwitchHandler Mapper CommandMapper
SwitchCell SwitchCellRenderer Mapper CommandMapper
TableView TableViewRenderer Mapper CommandMapper
TextCell TextCellRenderer Mapper CommandMapper
TimePicker ITimePicker TimePickerHandler Mapper CommandMapper
ViewCell ViewCellRenderer Mapper CommandMapper
WebView IWebView WebViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper

Page handlers

The following table lists the types that implement pages in .NET MAUI:

Page Android Handler iOS/Mac Catalyst Handler Windows Handler Property Mapper Command Mapper
ContentPage PageHandler PageHandler PageHandler Mapper CommandMapper
FlyoutPage FlyoutViewHandler PhoneFlyoutPageRenderer FlyoutViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
NavigationPage NavigationViewHandler NavigationRenderer NavigationViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
TabbedPage TabbedViewHandler TabbedRenderer TabbedViewHandler Mapper CommandMapper
Shell ShellHandler ShellRenderer ShellRenderer Mapper CommandMapper