driveItem: createUploadSession

Namespace: microsoft.graph

Create an upload session to allow your app to upload files up to the maximum file size. An upload session allows your app to upload ranges of the file in sequential API requests. Upload sessions also allow the transfer to resume if a connection is dropped while the upload is in progress.

To upload a file using an upload session:

  1. Create an upload session
  2. Upload bytes to the upload session

This API is available in the following national cloud deployments.

Global service US Government L4 US Government L5 (DOD) China operated by 21Vianet

Permissions

Choose the permission or permissions marked as least privileged for this API. Use a higher privileged permission or permissions only if your app requires it. For details about delegated and application permissions, see Permission types. To learn more about these permissions, see the permissions reference.

Permission type Least privileged permissions Higher privileged permissions
Delegated (work or school account) Files.ReadWrite Files.ReadWrite.All, Sites.ReadWrite.All
Delegated (personal Microsoft account) Files.ReadWrite Files.ReadWrite.All
Application Sites.ReadWrite.All Not available.

Create an upload session

To begin a large file upload, your app must first request a new upload session. This request creates a temporary storage location where the bytes of the file are saved until the complete file is uploaded. When the last byte of the file is uploaded, the upload session is completed and the final file is shown in the destination folder. Alternatively, you can defer final creation of the file in the destination until you explicitly make a request to complete the upload, by setting the deferCommit property in the request arguments.

HTTP request

To upload a new file, you must provide both the parent ID and the new file name in the request. However, an update only requires the ID of the item that will be updated.

Create new file

POST /me/drive/items/{parentItemId}:/{fileName}:/createUploadSession

Update existing file

POST /drives/{driveId}/items/{itemId}/createUploadSession
POST /groups/{groupId}/drive/items/{itemId}/createUploadSession
POST /me/drive/items/{itemId}/createUploadSession
POST /me/drive/items/{parentItemId}:/{fileName}:/createUploadSession
POST /sites/{siteId}/drive/items/{itemId}/createUploadSession
POST /users/{userId}/drive/items/{itemId}/createUploadSession

Request headers

Name Value Description
if-match etag If this request header is included and the eTag (or cTag) provided doesn't match the current etag on the item, a 412 Precondition Failed error response is returned.
if-none-match etag If this request header is included and the eTag (or cTag) provided matches the current etag on the item, a 412 Precondition Failed error response is returned.

Request body

No request body is required. However, you can specify properties in the request body to provide more information about the file being uploaded and to customize the semantics of the upload operation.

For example, the item property allows setting the following parameters:

{
  "@microsoft.graph.conflictBehavior": "fail (default) | replace | rename",
  "description": "description",
  "fileSize": 1234,
  "name": "filename.txt"
}

The following example controls the behavior if the filename is already taken. The example also specifies that the final file shouldn't be created until an explicit completion request is made.

{
  "item": {
    "@microsoft.graph.conflictBehavior": "rename"
  },
  "deferCommit": true
}

Optional request headers

Name Value Description
if-match etag If this request header is included and the eTag (or cTag) provided doesn't match the current etag on the item, a 412 Precondition Failed error response is returned.

Parameters

Parameter Type Description
deferCommit Boolean If set to true, the final creation of the file in the destination requires an explicit request.
item driveItemUploadableProperties Data about the file being uploaded.

Request

The response to this request provides the details of the newly created uploadSession, which includes the URL used for uploading the parts of the file.

Note: The {item-path} must contain the name of the item that's specified in the request body.

POST /me/drive/items/{itemID}:/{item-path}:/createUploadSession
Content-Type: application/json

{
  "item": {
    "@microsoft.graph.conflictBehavior": "rename",
    "name": "largefile.dat"
  }
}

Response

The response to this request, if successful, will provide the details for where the remainder of the requests should be sent as an UploadSession resource.

This resource provides details about where the byte range of the file should be uploaded and when the upload session expires.

If the fileSize parameter is specified and exceeds the available quota, a 507 Insufficent Storage response is returned and the upload session won't be created.

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json

{
  "uploadUrl": "https://sn3302.up.1drv.com/up/fe6987415ace7X4e1eF866337",
  "expirationDateTime": "2015-01-29T09:21:55.523Z"
}

Upload bytes to the upload session

To upload the file, or a portion of the file, your app makes a PUT request to the uploadUrl value received in the createUploadSession response. You can upload the entire file, or split the file into multiple byte ranges, as long as the maximum bytes in any given request is less than 60 MiB.

The fragments of the file must be uploaded sequentially in order. Uploading fragments out of order results in an error.

Note: If your app splits a file into multiple byte ranges, the size of each byte range MUST be a multiple of 320 KiB (327,680 bytes).

Using a fragment size that doesn't divide evenly by 320 KiB results in errors committing some files.

Example

In this example, the app is uploading the first 26 bytes of a 128-byte file.

  • The Content-Length header specifies the size of the current request.
  • The Content-Range header indicates the range of bytes in the overall file that this request represents.
  • The total length of the file is known before you can upload the first fragment of the file.
PUT https://sn3302.up.1drv.com/up/fe6987415ace7X4e1eF866337
Content-Length: 26
Content-Range: bytes 0-25/128

<bytes 0-25 of the file>

Note

  • To upload large files using SDKs see Upload large files using the Microsoft Graph SDKs.
  • Your app must ensure the total file size specified in the Content-Range header is the same for all requests. If a byte range declares a different file size, the request will fail.

Response

When the request is complete, the server responds with 202 Accepted if there are more byte ranges that need to be uploaded.

HTTP/1.1 202 Accepted
Content-Type: application/json

{
  "expirationDateTime": "2015-01-29T09:21:55.523Z",
  "nextExpectedRanges": ["26-"]
}

Your app can use the nextExpectedRanges value to determine where to start the next byte range. You may see multiple ranges specified, indicating parts of the file that the server hasn't yet received. This is useful if you need to resume a transfer that was interrupted and your client is unsure of the state on the service.

You should always determine the size of your byte ranges according to the best practices below. Don't assume that nextExpectedRanges will return ranges of proper size for a byte range to upload. The nextExpectedRanges property indicates ranges of the file that haven't been received and not a pattern for how your app should upload the file.

HTTP/1.1 202 Accepted
Content-Type: application/json

{
  "expirationDateTime": "2015-01-29T09:21:55.523Z",
  "nextExpectedRanges": [
  "12345-55232",
  "77829-99375"
  ]
}

Remarks

  • The nextExpectedRanges property doesn't always list all of the missing ranges.
  • On successful fragment writes, it will return the next range to start from (for example "523-").
  • On failures when the client sent a fragment the server had already received, the server responds with HTTP 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable. You can request upload status to get a more detailed list of missing ranges.
  • If you include the Authorization header when issuing the PUT call, it may result in an HTTP 401 Unauthorized response. Only send the Authorization header and bearer token when issuing the POST during the first step. Don't include it when you issue the PUT call.

Completing a file

If deferCommit is false or unset, then the upload is automatically completed when the final byte range of the file is PUT to the upload URL.

If deferCommit is true, you can explicitly complete the upload in two ways:

  • After the final byte range of the file is PUT to the upload URL, send a final POST request to the upload URL with zero-length content (currently only supported on OneDrive for Business and SharePoint).
  • After the final byte range of the file is PUT to the upload URL, send a final PUT request in the same way that you would handle upload errors (currently only supported on OneDrive Personal).

When the upload is completed, the server responds to the final request with an HTTP 201 Created or HTTP 200 OK. The response body will also include the default property set for the driveItem representing the completed file.

PUT https://sn3302.up.1drv.com/up/fe6987415ace7X4e1eF866337
Content-Length: 21
Content-Range: bytes 101-127/128

<final bytes of the file>

Note

HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Content-Type: application/json

{
  "id": "912310013A123",
  "name": "largefile.vhd",
  "size": 128,
  "file": { }
}
POST https://sn3302.up.1drv.com/up/fe6987415ace7X4e1eF866337
Content-Length: 0

Note

HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Content-Type: application/json

{
  "id": "912310013A123",
  "name": "largefile.vhd",
  "size": 128,
  "file": { }
}

Handling upload conflicts

If a conflict occurs after the file is uploaded (for example, an item with the same name was created during the upload session), an error is returned when the last byte range is uploaded.

HTTP/1.1 409 Conflict
Content-Type: application/json

{
  "error":
  {
    "code": "nameAlreadyExists",
    "message": "Another file exists with the same name as the uploaded session. You can redirect the upload session to use a new filename by calling PUT with the new metadata and @microsoft.graph.sourceUrl attribute.",
  }
}

Cancel the upload session

To cancel an upload session, send a DELETE request to the upload URL. This cleans up the temporary file holding the data previously uploaded. This should be used in scenarios where the upload is aborted, for example, if the user cancels the transfer.

Temporary files and their accompanying upload session are automatically cleaned up after the expirationDateTime has passed. Temporary files might not be deleted immediately after the expiration time has elapsed.

Request

DELETE https://sn3302.up.1drv.com/up/fe6987415ace7X4e1eF866337

Note

Response

The following example shows the response.

HTTP/1.1 204 No Content

Resuming an in-progress upload

If an upload request is disconnected or fails before the request is completed, all bytes in that request are ignored. This can occur if the connection between your app and the service is dropped. If this occurs, your app can still resume the file transfer from the previously completed fragment.

To find out which byte ranges have been received previously, your app can request the status of an upload session.

Example

Query the status of the upload by sending a GET request to the uploadUrl.

GET https://sn3302.up.1drv.com/up/fe6987415ace7X4e1eF86633784148bb98a1zjcUhf7b0mpUadahs

The server responds with a list of missing byte ranges that need to be uploaded and the expiration time for the upload session.

Note

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json

{
  "expirationDateTime": "2015-01-29T09:21:55.523Z",
  "nextExpectedRanges": ["12345-"]
}

Upload remaining data

Now that your app knows where to start the upload from, resume the upload by following the steps in upload bytes to the upload session.

Handle upload errors

When the last byte range of a file is uploaded, it's possible for an error to occur. This can be due to a name conflict or quota limitation being exceeded. The upload session is preserved until the expiration time, which allows your app to recover the upload by explicitly committing the upload session.

To explicitly commit the upload session, your app must make a PUT request with a new driveItem resource that will be used when committing the upload session. This new request should correct the source of error that generated the original upload error.

To indicate that your app is committing an existing upload session, the PUT request must include the @microsoft.graph.sourceUrl property with the value of your upload session URL.

PUT /me/drive/root:/{path_to_parent}
Content-Type: application/json
If-Match: {etag or ctag}

{
  "name": "largefile.vhd",
  "@microsoft.graph.conflictBehavior": "rename",
  "@microsoft.graph.sourceUrl": "{upload session URL}"
}

Response

If the file can be committed using the new metadata, an HTTP 201 Created or HTTP 200 OK response is returned with the Item metadata for the uploaded file.

HTTP/1.1 201 Created
Content-Type: application/json

{
  "id": "912310013A123",
  "name": "largefile.vhd",
  "size": 128,
  "file": { }
}

Best practices

  • Resume or retry uploads that fail due to connection interruptions or any 5xx errors, including:
    • 500 Internal Server Error
    • 502 Bad Gateway
    • 503 Service Unavailable
    • 504 Gateway Timeout
  • Use an exponential back off strategy if any 5xx server errors are returned when resuming or retrying upload requests.
  • For other errors, you shouldn't use an exponential back off strategy but limit the number of retry attempts made.
  • Handle 404 Not Found errors when doing resumable uploads by starting the entire upload over. This indicates the upload session no longer exists.
  • Use resumable file transfers for files larger than 10 MiB (10,485,760 bytes).
  • A byte range size of 10 MiB for stable high speed connections is optimal. For slower or less reliable connections you might get better results from a smaller fragment size. The recommended fragment size is between 5-10 MiB.
  • Use a byte range size that is a multiple of 320 KiB (327,680 bytes). Failing to use a fragment size that is a multiple of 320 KiB can result in large file transfers failing after the last byte range is uploaded.

Error responses

See the Error Responses article for details about how errors are returned.

Large file upload