# lookup operator

Applies to: ✅ Microsoft Fabric ✅ Azure Data Explorer ✅ Azure Monitor ✅ Microsoft Sentinel

Extends the columns of a fact table with values looked-up in a dimension table.

```
FactTable | lookup kind=leftouter (DimensionTable) on CommonColumn, $left.Col1 == $right.Col2
```

Here, the result is a table that extends the `FactTable`

(`$left`

) with data from `DimensionTable`

(referenced by `$right`

)
by performing a lookup of each pair (`CommonColumn`

,`Col`

) from the former table
with each pair (`CommonColumn1`

,`Col2`

) in the latter table.
For the differences between fact and dimension tables, see fact and dimension tables.

The `lookup`

operator performs an operation similar to the join operator
with the following differences:

- The result doesn't repeat columns from the
`$right`

table that are the basis for the join operation. - Only two kinds of lookup are supported,
`leftouter`

and`inner`

, with`leftouter`

being the default. - In terms of performance, the system by default assumes that the
`$left`

table is the larger (facts) table, and the`$right`

table is the smaller (dimensions) table. This is exactly opposite to the assumption used by the`join`

operator. - The
`lookup`

operator automatically broadcasts the`$right`

table to the`$left`

table (essentially, behaves as if`hint.broadcast`

was specified). This limits the size of the`$right`

table.

Note

If the right side of the lookup is larger than several tens of MBs, the query will fail.

You can run the following query to estimate the size of the right side in bytes:

```
rightSide
| summarize sum(estimate_data_size(*))
```

## Syntax

*LeftTable* `|`

`lookup`

[`kind`

`=`

(`leftouter`

|`inner`

)] `(`

*RightTable*`)`

`on`

*Conditions*

Learn more about syntax conventions.

## Parameters

Name | Type | Required | Description |
---|---|---|---|

LeftTable |
`string` |
✔️ | The table or tabular expression that is the basis for the lookup. Denoted as `$left` . |

RightTable |
`string` |
✔️ | The table or tabular expression that is used to "populate" new columns in the fact table. Denoted as `$right` . |

Attributes |
`string` |
✔️ | A comma-delimited list of one or more rules that describe how rows from LeftTable are matched to rows from RightTable. Multiple rules are evaluated using the `and` logical operator. See Rules. |

`kind` |
`string` |
Determines how to treat rows in LeftTable that have no match in RightTable. By default, `leftouter` is used, which means all those rows will appear in the output with null values used for the missing values of RightTable columns added by the operator. If `inner` is used, such rows are omitted from the output. Other kinds of join aren't supported by the `lookup` operator. |

### Rules

Rule kind | Syntax | Predicate |
---|---|---|

Equality by name | ColumnName |
`where` LeftTable.ColumnName `==` RightTable.ColumnName |

Equality by value | `$left.` LeftColumn `==` `$right.` RightColumn |
`where` `$left.` LeftColumn `==` `$right.` *RightColumn |

Note

In case of 'equality by value', the column names *must* be qualified with the applicable owner table denoted by `$left`

and `$right`

notations.

## Returns

A table with:

- A column for every column in each of the two tables, including the matching keys. The columns of the right side will be automatically renamed if there are name conflicts.
- A row for every match between the input tables. A match is a row selected from one table that has the same value for all the
`on`

fields as a row in the other table. - The Attributes (lookup keys) will appear only once in the output table.
- If
`kind`

is unspecified or`kind=leftouter`

, then in addition to the inner matches, there's a row for every row on the left (and/or right), even if it has no match. In that case, the unmatched output cells contain nulls. - If
`kind=inner`

, then there's a row in the output for every combination of matching rows from left and right.

## Examples

```
let FactTable=datatable(Row:string,Personal:string,Family:string) [
"1", "Bill", "Gates",
"2", "Bill", "Clinton",
"3", "Bill", "Clinton",
"4", "Steve", "Ballmer",
"5", "Tim", "Cook"
];
let DimTable=datatable(Personal:string,Family:string,Alias:string) [
"Bill", "Gates", "billg",
"Bill", "Clinton", "billc",
"Steve", "Ballmer", "steveb",
"Tim", "Cook", "timc"
];
FactTable
| lookup kind=leftouter DimTable on Personal, Family
```

Row | Personal | Family | Alias |
---|---|---|---|

1 | Bill | Gates | billg |

2 | Bill | Clinton | billc |

3 | Bill | Clinton | billc |

4 | Steve | Ballmer | steveb |

5 | Tim | Cook | timc |