Chapter 10 - Script modules

Turning your one-liners and scripts in PowerShell into reusable tools becomes even more important if it's something that you're going to use frequently. Packaging your functions in a script module makes them look and feel more professional and makes them easier to share.

Dot-Sourcing Functions

Something that we didn't talk about in the previous chapter is dot-sourcing functions. When a function in a script isn't part of a module, the only way to load it into memory is to dot-source the .PS1 file that it's saved in.

The following function has been saved as Get-MrPSVersion.ps1.

function Get-MrPSVersion {

When you run the script, nothing happens.


If you try to call the function, it generates an error message.

Get-MrPSVersion : The term 'Get-MrPSVersion' is not recognized as the name of a cmdlet,
function, script file, or operable program. Check the spelling of the name, or if a path
was included, verify that the path is correct and try again.
At line:1 char:1
+ Get-MrPSVersion
    + CategoryInfo          : ObjectNotFound: (Get-MrPSVersion:String) [], CommandNotFou
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : CommandNotFoundException

You can determine if functions are loaded into memory by checking to see if they exist on the Function PSDrive.

Get-ChildItem -Path Function:\Get-MrPSVersion
Get-ChildItem : Cannot find path 'Get-MrPSVersion' because it does not exist.
At line:1 char:1
+ Get-ChildItem -Path Function:\Get-MrPSVersion
    + CategoryInfo          : ObjectNotFound: (Get-MrPSVersion:String) [Get-ChildItem],
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : PathNotFound,Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.GetChildItemCommand

The problem with calling the script that contains the function is that the functions are loaded in the Script scope. When the script completes, that scope is removed and the function is removed with it.

The function needs to be loaded into the Global scope. That can be accomplished by dot-sourcing the script that contains the function. The relative path can be used.

. .\Get-MrPSVersion.ps1

The fully qualified path can also be used.

. C:\Demo\Get-MrPSVersion.ps1

If a portion of the path is stored in a variable, it can be combined with the remainder of the path. There's no reason to use string concatenation to combine the variable together with the remainder of the path.

$Path = 'C:\'
. $Path\Get-MrPSVersion.ps1

Now when I check the Function PSDrive, the Get-MrPSVersion function exists.

Get-ChildItem -Path Function:\Get-MrPSVersion
CommandType     Name                                               Version    Source
-----------     ----                                               -------    ------
Function        Get-MrPSVersion

Script Modules

A script module in PowerShell is simply a file containing one or more functions that's saved as a .PSM1 file instead of a .PS1 file.

How do you create a script module? You're probably guessing with a command named something like New-Module. Your assumption would be wrong. While there is a command in PowerShell named New-Module, that command creates a dynamic module, not a script module. Always be sure to read the help for a command even when you think you've found the command you need.

help New-Module

    Creates a new dynamic module that exists only in memory.

    New-Module [-Name] <String> [-ScriptBlock] <ScriptBlock> [-ArgumentList <Object[]>]
    [-AsCustomObject] [-Cmdlet <String[]>] [-Function <String[]>] [-ReturnResult]

    The New-Module cmdlet creates a dynamic module from a script block. The members of
    the dynamic module, such as functions and variables, are immediately available in
    the session and remain available until you close the session.

    Like static modules, by default, the cmdlets and functions in a dynamic module are
    exported and the variables and aliases are not. However, you can use the
    Export-ModuleMember cmdlet and the parameters of New-Module to override the defaults.

    You can also use the AsCustomObject parameter of New-Module to return the dynamic
    module as a custom object. The members of the modules, such as functions, are
    implemented as script methods of the custom object instead of being imported into
    the session.

    Dynamic modules exist only in memory, not on disk. Like all modules, the members of
    dynamic modules run in a private module scope that is a child of the global scope.
    Get-Module cannot get a dynamic module, but Get-Command can get the exported members.

    To make a dynamic module available to Get-Module , pipe a New-Module command to
    Import-Module, or pipe the module object that New-Module returns to Import-Module .
    This action adds the dynamic module to the Get-Module list, but it does not save the
    module to disk or make it persistent.

    Online Version:

    To see the examples, type: "get-help New-Module -examples".
    For more information, type: "get-help New-Module -detailed".
    For technical information, type: "get-help New-Module -full".
    For online help, type: "get-help New-Module -online"

In the previous chapter, I mentioned that functions should use approved verbs otherwise they'll generate a warning message when the module is imported. The following code uses the New-Module cmdlet to create a dynamic module in memory. This module demonstrates the unapproved verb warning.

New-Module -Name MyModule -ScriptBlock {

    function Return-MrOsVersion {
        Get-CimInstance -ClassName Win32_OperatingSystem |
        Select-Object -Property @{label='OperatingSystem';expression={$_.Caption}}

    Export-ModuleMember -Function Return-MrOsVersion

} | Import-Module
WARNING: The names of some imported commands from the module 'MyModule' include
unapproved verbs that might make them less discoverable. To find the commands with
unapproved verbs, run the Import-Module command again with the Verbose parameter. For a
list of approved verbs, type Get-Verb.

Just to reiterate, although the New-Module cmdlet was used in the previous example, that's not the command for creating script modules in PowerShell.

Save the following two functions in a file named MyScriptModule.psm1.

function Get-MrPSVersion {

function Get-MrComputerName {

Try to call one of the functions.

Get-MrComputerName : The term 'Get-MrComputerName' is not recognized as the name of a
cmdlet, function, script file, or operable program. Check the spelling of the name, or
if a path was included, verify that the path is correct and try again.
At line:1 char:1
+ Get-MrComputerName
    + CategoryInfo          : ObjectNotFound: (Get-MrComputerName:String) [], CommandNot
    + FullyQualifiedErrorId : CommandNotFoundException

An error message is generated saying the function can't be found. You could also check the Function PSDrive just like before and you'll find that it doesn't exist there either.

You could manually import the file with the Import-Module cmdlet.

Import-Module C:\MyScriptModule.psm1

The module autoloading feature was introduced in PowerShell version 3. To take advantage of module autoloading, a script module needs to be saved in a folder with the same base name as the .PSM1 file and in a location specified in $env:PSModulePath.

C:\Users\mike-ladm\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Modules;C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\
Modules;C:\Windows\system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\Modules;C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsof
t SQL Server\130\Tools\PowerShell\Modules\

The results are difficult to read. Since the paths are separated by a semicolon, you can split the results to return each path on a separate line. This makes them easier to read.

$env:PSModulePath -split ';'
C:\Program Files\WindowsPowerShell\Modules
C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SQL Server\130\Tools\PowerShell\Modules\

The first three paths in the list are the default. When SQL Server Management Studio was installed, it added the last path. For module autoloading to work, the MyScriptModule.psm1 file needs to be located in a folder named MyScriptModule directly inside one of those paths.

Not so fast. For me, my current user path isn't the first one in the list. I almost never use that path since I log into Windows with a different user than the one I use to run PowerShell. That means it's not located in my normal Documents folder.

The second path is the AllUsers path. This is the location where I store all of my modules.

The third path is underneath C:\Windows\System32. Only Microsoft should be storing modules in that location since it resides within the operating systems folder.

Once the .PSM1 file is located in the correct path, the module will load automatically when one of its commands is called.

Module Manifests

All modules should have a module manifest. A module manifest contains metadata about your module. The file extension for a module manifest file is .PSD1. Not all files with a .PSD1 extension are module manifests. They can also be used for things such as storing the environmental portion of a DSC configuration. New-ModuleManifest is used to create a module manifest. Path is the only value that's required. However, the module won't work if RootModule isn't specified. It's a good idea to specify Author and Description in case you decide to upload your module to a NuGet repository with PowerShellGet since those values are required in that scenario.

The version of a module without a manifest is 0.0. This is a dead giveaway that the module doesn't have a manifest.

Get-Module -Name MyScriptModule
ModuleType Version    Name                                ExportedCommands
---------- -------    ----                                ----------------
Script     0.0        myscriptmodule                      {Get-MrComputerName, Get-MrP...

The module manifest can be created with all of the recommended information.

New-ModuleManifest -Path $env:ProgramFiles\WindowsPowerShell\Modules\MyScriptModule\MyScriptModule.psd1 -RootModule MyScriptModule -Author 'Mike F Robbins' -Description 'MyScriptModule' -CompanyName ''

If any of this information is missed during the initial creation of the module manifest, it can be added or updated later using Update-ModuleManifest. Don't recreate the manifest using New-ModuleManifest once it's already created because the GUID will change.

Defining Public and Private Functions

You may have helper functions that you may want to be private and only accessible by other functions within the module. They are not intended to be accessible to users of your module. There are a couple of different ways to accomplish this.

If you're not following the best practices and only have a .PSM1 file, then your only option is to use the Export-ModuleMember cmdlet.

function Get-MrPSVersion {

function Get-MrComputerName {

Export-ModuleMember -Function Get-MrPSVersion

In the previous example, only the Get-MrPSVersion function is available to the users of your module, but the Get-MrComputerName function is available to other functions within the module itself.

Get-Command -Module MyScriptModule
CommandType     Name                                            Version    Source
-----------     ----                                            -------    ------
Function        Get-MrPSVersion                                 1.0        MyScriptModule

If you've added a module manifest to your module (and you should), then I recommend specifying the individual functions you want to export in the FunctionsToExport section of the module manifest.

FunctionsToExport = 'Get-MrPSVersion'

It's not necessary to use both Export-ModuleMember in the .PSM1 file and the FunctionsToExport section of the module manifest. One or the other is sufficient.


In this chapter you've learned how to turn your functions into a script module in PowerShell. You've also learned some of the best practices for creating script modules such as creating a module manifest for your script module.


  1. How do you create a script module in PowerShell?
  2. Why is it important for your functions to use an approved verb?
  3. How do you create a module manifest in PowerShell?
  4. What are the two options for exporting only certain functions from your module?
  5. What is required for your modules to load automatically when a command is called?