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XML Reserved Characters

In XML, some characters are reserved for internal use and you must replace them by entity references when they are used in data.

Entity References

The following table shows the characters that must be replaced by their entity references in all application definition files (ADFs) and instance configuration files (ICFs).

Character Meaning Entity reference


Greater than



Less than








The Notification Services XML vocabulary reserves the percent sign (%) for denoting parameters.


The following example shows the use of an entity reference in place of a less-than symbol (<) in an Action element from an ADF:

    INSERT INTO FlightNotifications(SubscriberId, DeviceName, 
        SubscriberLocale, Carrier, LeavingFrom, GoingTo, 
        Price, Conditions)
    SELECT S.SubscriberId, S.DeviceName, S.SubscriberLocale, 
        E.Carrier, E.LeavingFrom, E.GoingTo, E.Price, 
    FROM FlightEvents E, FlightSubscriptions S
    WHERE E.LeavingFrom = S.LeavingFrom
    AND E.GoingTo = S.GoingTo
    AND ( (E.Carrier = S.Airline) OR (S.Airline = '*') )
    AND E.Price &lt; S.Price

See Also


Application Definition File Reference


Instance Configuration File Reference

Help and Information

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