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Windows Server 2003 Glossary - F

Applies To: Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2

For more Windows Server terms, see the Windows Server 2008 Glossary.

Glossary - F

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The process of moving resources, either individually or in a group, back to their preferred node after the node has failed and come back online.

See also: failback policy   node   resource   

failback policy

Parameters that an administrator can set using Cluster Administrator that affect failback operations.

See also: Cluster Administrator   failback   


A state that applies to a resource or a node in a cluster. A resource or a node is placed in the failed state after an unsuccessful attempt has been made to bring it online.

See also: cluster   node   resource   


In server clusters, the process of taking resource groups offline on one node and bringing them online on another node. When failover occurs, all resources within a resource group fail over in a predefined order; resources that depend on other resources are taken offline before, and are brought back online after, the resources on which they depend.

See also: failover policy   node   offline   possible owner   server cluster   

failover policy

Parameters that an administrator can set using Cluster Administrator that affect failover operations.

See also: Cluster Administrator   failover   


See other term: file allocation table (FAT)  


A system used to store files on a computer drive. FAT32 is based on the file allocation table (FAT) file system, but it uses 32-bit values for storing files instead of the 16-bit values used by the original FAT file system. FAT32 offers more efficient drive space allocation by creating smaller clusters than FAT and supports volumes of up to 2 terabytes (TB) of size.

fault tolerance

The ability of computer hardware or software to ensure data integrity when hardware failures occur. Fault-tolerant features appear in many server operating systems and include mirrored volumes, RAID-5 volumes, and server clusters.

See also: cluster   mirrored volume   RAID-5 volume   

Fax Service

A system service that provides fax services to local and remote network clients. Fax services include receiving faxes and faxing documents, fax wizard messages, and e-mail messages.

See also: service   


See other term: file control block (FCB)  

Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)

A standard entitled Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules. FIPS 140-1 (1994) and FIPS 140-2 (2001) describe government requirements for hardware and software cryptomodules used in the U.S. government.

See also: cryptography   


A pair of realms or domains that have established a federation trust.

Federation Service

A security token service that is built into Windows Server 2003 R2. The Federation Service provides tokens in response to requests for security tokens.

Federation Service Proxy

A proxy to the Federation Service in the perimeter network (also known as screened subnet). The Federation Service Proxy uses WS-Federation Passive Requestor Profile (WS-F PRP) protocols to collect user credential information from browser clients and Web applications and send the information to the Federation Service on their behalf.


See other term: file encryption key (FEK)  


See other term: front-end processor (FEP)  

Fibre Channel

A networking standard developed to connect devices that require the transmission of large volumes of data at a very high speed. A leading implementation of Fibre Channel technology has been in storage area networks (SANs. Although the term Fibre Channel implies the use of fiber-optic technology, copper coaxial cable is also supported.

file allocation table (FAT)

A file system used by MS-DOS and other Windows operating systems to organize and manage files. The file allocation table is a data structure that Windows creates when you format a volume by using FAT or FAT32 file systems. Windows stores information about each file in the file allocation table so that it can retrieve the file later.

See also: file system   NTFS file system   

file control block (FCB)

A small block of memory temporarily assigned by a computer's operating system to hold information about a file that has been opened for use. An FCB typically contains such information as the file's identification, its location on disk, and a pointer that marks the user's current (or last) position in the file.

file creator

A four-character sequence that identifies which program was used to create a file. With Services for Macintosh, you can associate file name extensions with file creators and file types to specify which program starts automatically when you open a file with a particular extension.

See also: extension-type association   

file encryption key (FEK)

A pseudo-random cryptographic key that Encrypting File System (EFS) uses to encrypt a file. The FEK is encrypted by the public key of the user performing the encryption, and it is typically different for each encrypted file.

See also: Encrypting File System (EFS)   encryption   key   public key   

file fork

One of two subfiles of a Macintosh file. When Macintosh files are stored on a computer running Services for Macintosh, each fork is stored as a separate file. Each fork can be independently opened by Macintosh users.

file group

A File Server Resource Manager option that is used to define a namespace for a file screen, file screen exception, or storage report. It consists of a set of file name patterns, which in turn determine whether files are included or excluded from a group.

File Replication service (FRS)

A service that provides multimaster file replication for designated directory trees between designated servers running Windows Server 2003. The designated directory trees must be on disk partitions formatted with the version of NTFS used with the Windows Server 2003 family. FRS is used by Distributed File System (DFS) to automatically synchronize content between assigned replicas and by Active Directory to automatically synchronize content of the system volume information across domain controllers.

See also: Active Directory   NTFS file system   replica   replication   service   

file screen

A File Server Resource Manager option that is used to block certain files from being saved on a volume or in a folder tree. A file screen is applied at the folder level and affects all folders and subfolders in the designated path.

File Server for Macintosh

A service that allows users of Macintosh computers to store, access, and share files on servers running Services for Macintosh. Also called MacFile.

See also: service   

File Server Resource Manager

A suite of tools that allows administrators to understand, control, and manage the quantity and type of data stored on their servers.

file share

In a server cluster, any folder that has an associated File Share resource and is managed by the Cluster service. The file share can fail over from one node to another, but to the end user, the folder looks like a regular folder that remains in one location. Multiple users can access a file share.

See also: cluster   resource   service   

File Share resource

A file share accessible by a network path that is supported as a cluster resource by a Resource DLL.

See also: Resource DLL   

file system

In an operating system, the overall structure in which files are named, stored, and organized. NTFS, FAT, and FAT32 are types of file systems.

See also: FAT   FAT32   NTFS file system   

file system cache

An area of physical memory that holds frequently used pages. It allows applications and services to locate pages rapidly and reduces disk activity.

See also: cache   

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols, used to copy files between two computers on the Internet. Both computers must support their respective FTP roles: one must be an FTP client and the other an FTP server.

See also: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)   

file type

In the Windows environment, a designation of the operational or structural characteristics of a file. The file type identifies the program, such as Microsoft Word, that is used to open the file. File types are associated with a file name extension. For example, files that have the .txt or .log extension are of the Text Document type and can be opened using any text editor. In the Macintosh environment, a four-character sequence that identifies the type of a Macintosh file. The Macintosh Finder uses the file type and file creator to determine the appropriate desktop icon for that file.


For Indexing Service, software that extracts content and property values from a document to index them. For Internet Protocol security (IPSec), a specification of Internet Protocol (IP) traffic that provides the ability to trigger security negotiations for a communication based on the source, destination, and type of IP traffic. For Internet Information Services (IIS), a feature of Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI) that allows preprocessing of requests and postprocessing of responses, permitting site-specific handling of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) requests and responses. In IP and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) packet filtering, a definition in a series of definitions that indicates to the router the type of traffic allowed or disallowed on each interface.

See also: Indexing Service   Internet Information Services (IIS)   Internet Protocol (IP)   Internet Protocol security (IPsec)   Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI)   Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)   

filtering mode

For Network Load Balancing, the method by which network traffic inbound to a cluster is handled by the hosts within the cluster. Traffic can either be handled by a single server, load balanced among the hosts within the cluster, or disabled completely.

See also: cluster   host   load balancing   Network Load Balancing   


See other term: Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)  


A security solution that segregates one portion of a network from another portion, allowing only authorized network traffic to pass through according to traffic filtering rules.


See other term: IEEE 1394  


Software routines and low-level input/output instructions stored in read-only memory (ROM). Unlike random-access memory (RAM), read-only memory stays intact even in the absence of electrical power.

See also: random access memory (RAM)   read-only memory (ROM)   

flexible single-master operations (FSMO)

See other term: operations master  


A container for programs and files in graphical user interfaces, symbolized on the screen by a graphical image (icon) of a file folder. A folder is a means of organizing programs and documents on a disk and can hold both files and additional folders. For DFS Namespaces, any folder that appears after \\ServerOrDomainName\RootName. A folder can have optional folder targets.

folder target

A Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path of a shared folder or another namespace that is associated with a folder in a namespace.


A graphic design applied to a collection of numbers, symbols, and characters. A font describes a certain typeface, along with other qualities such as size, spacing, and pitch.

See also: OpenType font   PostScript fonts   screen font   Type 1 fonts   

font cartridge

A plug-in unit available for some printers that contains fonts in several styles and sizes. As with downloadable fonts, printers using font cartridges can produce characters in sizes and styles other than those created by the fonts built into it.

See also: downloadable fonts   font   

foreground program

The program that runs in the active window (the uppermost window with the highlighted title bar). The foreground program responds to commands issued by the user.

See also: background program   title bar   

foreign computer

A computer that uses another message queuing system but, through a connector application, can exchange messages with computers that run Message Queuing.

See also: connector application   Message Queuing   

foreign security principal

An object in a domain that represents a security principal that exists in a trusted domain located in a different forest. Foreign security principals are necessary for users in a domain to access resources that exist in a different forest.

See also: domain   forest   object   resource   security principal   


One or more Active Directory domains that share the same class and attribute definitions (schema), site and replication information (configuration), and forest-wide search capabilities (global catalog). Domains in the same forest are linked with two-way, transitive trust relationships.

See also: Active Directory   domain   global catalog   schema   transitive trust   two-way trust   

forest functionality

The functional level of an Active Directory forest that has one or more domain controllers running Windows Server 2003. The functional level of a forest can be raised to enable new Active Directory features that will apply to every domain in the forest. There are three forest functional levels: Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 interim, and Windows Server 2003. The default forest functional level is Windows 2000. When the forest functional level is raised to Windows Server 2003 interim or Windows Server 2003, advanced forest-wide Active Directory features are available.

See also: Active Directory   domain   domain controller   forest   

forest root domain

The first domain created in a new forest. The forest-wide administrative groups, Enterprise Admins and Schema Admins, are located in this domain. As a best practice, new domains are created as children of the forest root domain.

See also: child domain   domain   domain hierarchy   forest   

forest trust

A trust between two Windows Server 2003 forests that forms trust relationships between every domain in both forests. A forest trust can be created only between the forest root domains in each forest. Forest trusts are transitive, and they can be one-way or two-way. An administrator must manually establish a forest trust, unlike an automatically established trust, such as a parent-child trust.

See also: domain   forest   one-way trust   parent-child trust   root domain   transitive trust   trust relationship   two-way trust   


The specification of physical characteristics such as paper size (that is, letter or legal) and printer area margins of paper or other print media. For example, by default, the Letter form has a paper size of 8.5 inches by 11 inches and does not reserve space for margins.


A family of security products including PCMCIA-based cards, compatible serial port devices, combination cards (such as FORTEZZA/Modem and FORTEZZA/Ethernet), server boards, and others. FORTEZZA is a registered trademark held by the U.S. National Security Agency.

See also: serial port   

forward lookup

A DNS query for a DNS name.

See also: Domain Name System (DNS)   


A DNS server designated by other internal DNS servers to be used to forward queries for resolving external or offsite DNS domain names.

See also: DNS server   domain name   Domain Name System (DNS)   


See other term: fully qualified domain name (FQDN)  


The scattering of parts of the same disk file over different areas of the disk. Fragmentation occurs as files on a disk are deleted and new files are added. It slows disk access and degrades the overall performance of disk operations, although usually not severely.

See also: defragmentation   


In synchronous communication, a package of information transmitted as a single unit from one device to another.

See also: capture   

frame type

The way in which a network type, such as Ethernet, formats data to be sent over a network. When multiple frame types are allowed for a particular network type, the packets are structured differently and are, therefore, incompatible. All computers on a network must use the same frame type to communicate. Also called frame format.

See also: frame   packet   

free media pool

A logical collection of unused data-storage media that can be used by applications or other media pools. When media are no longer needed by an application, they are returned to a free media pool so that they can be used again.

See also: media pool   Removable Storage   

free space

Available space that you use to create logical drives within an extended partition.

See also: extended partition   logical drive   unallocated space   

front-end processor (FEP)

In communications, a computer that is located between communications lines and a main (host) computer and used to relieve the host of tasks related to communications; sometimes considered synonymous with communications controller. A front-end processor is dedicated entirely to handling transmitted information, including error detection and control; receipt, transmission, and possibly encoding of messages; and management of the lines running to and from other devices.

See also: host   


See other term: File Replication service (FRS)  


See other term: operations master  


See other term: File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  

full computer name

A fully qualified domain name (FQDN). The full computer name is a concatenation of the computer name (for example, client1) and the primary DNS suffix of the computer (for example, The same computer could be identified by more than one FQDN. However, it has only one full computer name.

See also: DNS suffix   fully qualified domain name (FQDN)   

Full Control

An access control entry (ACE) that assigns all applicable rights to a file system or directory service object.

See also: access control entry (ACE)   object   permission   

full name

A user`s complete name, usually consisting of the last name, first name, and middle initial. The full name is information that Local Users and Groups or Active Directory Users and Computers can maintain as part of the information identifying and defining a user account.

See also: Active Directory Users and Computers   user account   

full zone transfer (AXFR)

The standard query type supported by all DNS servers to update and synchronize zone data when the zone has been changed. When a DNS query is made using AXFR as the specified query type, the entire zone is transferred as the response.

See also: DNS server   zone   


A system capable of simultaneously transmitting information in both directions over a communications channel.

See also: duplex   half-duplex   

fully qualified domain name (FQDN)

A DNS name that has been stated to indicate its absolute location in the domain namespace tree. In contrast to relative names, an FQDN has a trailing period (.) to qualify its position to the root of the namespace (

See also: domain name   Domain Name System (DNS)   domain namespace   relative name