Applies To: Windows Server 2008

This is preliminary documentation and subject to change.

Hyper-V is a role that you can enable in Windows Server 2008. Hyper-V provides software infrastructure and basic management tools in Windows Server 2008 that you can use to create and manage a virtualized server computing environment.

Hierarchy of Managed Entities

Managed Entities

Name Description


Hyper-V troubleshooting is focused on three services:
  • Hyper-V Virtual Machine Management (vmms.exe)
  • Hyper-V Image Management (vhdsvc)
  • Hyper-V Networking Management (nvspwmi)

If a high-availability solution is used with virtual machines, you may also need to manage the Windows Server 2008 Cluster service (clusssvc.exe). For further information on available switches for the Cluster service, see https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=147512.

Note:  The Failover Clustering feature is available in Windows Server 2008 Enterprise and Windows Server 2008 Datacenter. The feature is not available in Windows Web Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 Standard.
Hyper-V also includes a software package that improves integration between the physical computer and the virtual machine. This package contains integration services and virtual machine drivers. However, integration services are not managed using the Services MMC snap-in on the virtualization server.


Virtual Machines

A virtual machine is a computer within a computer, implemented in software. A virtual machine runs on a virtualization server (also called a host) and emulates a complete hardware system, from processor to network card. Virtual machines typically consist of one or more .vhd files, a .vmc file, and other properties.

Virtual Machine Networking

Virtual machine networking issues.

Virtual Machine Storage

Virtual machine storage issues.

Virtual Machine Devices

Virtual machine device issues.

Virtual Machine Operational State

Virtual machine operational state issues.

Virtual Machine Configuration

By default virtual machine configuration files are at: %ProgramData%\Microsoft\Windows\Hyper-V\Virtual Machines.

Virtual Network Switch

A virtual network switch (also referred to as a virtual switch) is a virtual version of a physical network switch. A virtual network can be configured to provide access to local or external network resources for one or more virtual machines.
When you install Hyper-V and create an external virtual network, the management operating system (sometimes called the parent partition) uses a new virtual network adapter to connect to the physical network. The network connections consist of the original network adapter and the new virtual network adapter. The original physical network adapter does not have anything bound to it.
However, the virtual network adapter has all of the standard protocols and services bound to it.
Hyper-V binds the Virtual Network Service Protocol to a physical network adapter when an external virtual network is created.
A virtual network works just like a physical network except that the switch is software based and ports can be added or removed dynamically as they are needed.
After an external virtual network is configured, all networking traffic is routed though the virtual switch. For this reason, we recommend using at least one additional physical network adapter for managing network traffic. The virtual switch functions as a physical switch would and routes networking traffic through the virtual network to its destination.


The hypervisor is a layer of software that exists above the hardware and below one or more operating systems. It creates partitions to provide isolated execution environments and manages each partition's access to hardware resources.

Authorization Manager (AzMan) Store

You use Authorization Manager (also known as AzMan) to provide role-based access control for Hyper-V. For instructions on implementing role-based access control, see Configure Hyper-V for Role-based Access Control. For more information about getting started with Authorization Manager, see Authorization Manager Terminology and Checklist: Before you start using Authorization Manager (https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=134197).

By default the Authorization Manager store (InitialStore.xml) file installs on the local computer in the \ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Hyper-V directory. Note that if you use System Center Virtual Machine Manager, the default location may have changed to ProgramData\Microsoft\Virtual Machine Manager\HyperVAuthStore.xml.