Azure Monitor Query client library for Python - version 1.2.1

The Azure Monitor Query client library is used to execute read-only queries against Azure Monitor's two data platforms:

  • Logs - Collects and organizes log and performance data from monitored resources. Data from different sources such as platform logs from Azure services, log and performance data from virtual machines agents, and usage and performance data from apps can be consolidated into a single Azure Log Analytics workspace. The various data types can be analyzed together using the Kusto Query Language.
  • Metrics - Collects numeric data from monitored resources into a time series database. Metrics are numerical values that are collected at regular intervals and describe some aspect of a system at a particular time. Metrics are lightweight and capable of supporting near real-time scenarios, making them useful for alerting and fast detection of issues.

Resources:

Getting started

Prerequisites

Install the package

Install the Azure Monitor Query client library for Python with pip:

pip install azure-monitor-query

Create the client

An authenticated client is required to query Logs or Metrics. The library includes both synchronous and asynchronous forms of the clients. To authenticate, create an instance of a token credential. Use that instance when creating a LogsQueryClient or MetricsQueryClient. The following examples use DefaultAzureCredential from the azure-identity package.

Synchronous clients

Consider the following example, which creates synchronous clients for both Logs and Metrics querying:

from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.monitor.query import LogsQueryClient, MetricsQueryClient

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
logs_client = LogsQueryClient(credential)
metrics_client = MetricsQueryClient(credential)

Asynchronous clients

The asynchronous forms of the query client APIs are found in the .aio-suffixed namespace. For example:

from azure.identity.aio import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.monitor.query.aio import LogsQueryClient, MetricsQueryClient

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
async_logs_client = LogsQueryClient(credential)
async_metrics_client = MetricsQueryClient(credential)

Configure clients for non-public Azure clouds

By default, LogsQueryClient and MetricsQueryClient are configured to connect to the public Azure cloud. These can be configured to connect to non-public Azure clouds by passing in the correct endpoint argument: For example:

logs_client = LogsQueryClient(credential, endpoint="https://api.loganalytics.azure.cn/v1")
metrics_client = MetricsQueryClient(credential, endpoint="https://management.chinacloudapi.cn")

Note: Currently, MetricsQueryClient uses the Azure Resource Manager (ARM) endpoint for querying metrics, so you will need the corresponding management endpoint for your cloud when using this client. This is subject to change in the future.

Execute the query

For examples of Logs and Metrics queries, see the Examples section.

Key concepts

Logs query rate limits and throttling

The Log Analytics service applies throttling when the request rate is too high. Limits, such as the maximum number of rows returned, are also applied on the Kusto queries. For more information, see Query API.

If you're executing a batch logs query, a throttled request will return a LogsQueryError object. That object's code value will be ThrottledError.

Metrics data structure

Each set of metric values is a time series with the following characteristics:

  • The time the value was collected
  • The resource associated with the value
  • A namespace that acts like a category for the metric
  • A metric name
  • The value itself
  • Some metrics may have multiple dimensions as described in multi-dimensional metrics. Custom metrics can have up to 10 dimensions.

Examples

Logs query

This example shows how to query a Log Analytics workspace. To handle the response and view it in a tabular form, the pandas library is used. See the samples if you choose not to use pandas.

Specify timespan

The timespan parameter specifies the time duration for which to query the data. This value can be one of the following:

  • a timedelta
  • a timedelta and a start datetime
  • a start datetime/end datetime

For example:

import os
import pandas as pd
from datetime import datetime, timezone
from azure.monitor.query import LogsQueryClient, LogsQueryStatus
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.core.exceptions import HttpResponseError

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
client = LogsQueryClient(credential)

query = """AppRequests | take 5"""

start_time=datetime(2021, 7, 2, tzinfo=timezone.utc)
end_time=datetime(2021, 7, 4, tzinfo=timezone.utc)

try:
    response = client.query_workspace(
        workspace_id=os.environ['LOG_WORKSPACE_ID'],
        query=query,
        timespan=(start_time, end_time)
        )
    if response.status == LogsQueryStatus.PARTIAL:
        error = response.partial_error
        data = response.partial_data
        print(error)
    elif response.status == LogsQueryStatus.SUCCESS:
        data = response.tables
    for table in data:
        df = pd.DataFrame(data=table.rows, columns=table.columns)
        print(df)
except HttpResponseError as err:
    print("something fatal happened")
    print(err)

Handle logs query response

The query_workspace API returns either a LogsQueryResult or a LogsQueryPartialResult object. The batch_query API returns a list that may contain LogsQueryResult, LogsQueryPartialResult, and LogsQueryError objects. Here's a hierarchy of the response:

LogsQueryResult
|---statistics
|---visualization
|---tables (list of `LogsTable` objects)
    |---name
    |---rows
    |---columns
    |---columns_types

LogsQueryPartialResult
|---statistics
|---visualization
|---partial_error (a `LogsQueryError` object)
    |---code
    |---message
    |---details
    |---status
|---partial_data (list of `LogsTable` objects)
    |---name
    |---rows
    |---columns
    |---columns_types

The LogsQueryResult directly iterates over the table as a convenience. For example, to handle a logs query response with tables and display it using pandas:

response = client.query(...)
for table in response:
    df = pd.DataFrame(table.rows, columns=[col.name for col in table.columns])

A full sample can be found here.

In a similar fashion, to handle a batch logs query response:

for result in response:
    if result.status == LogsQueryStatus.SUCCESS:
        for table in result:
            df = pd.DataFrame(table.rows, columns=table.columns)
            print(df)

A full sample can be found here.

Batch logs query

The following example demonstrates sending multiple queries at the same time using the batch query API. The queries can either be represented as a list of LogsBatchQuery objects or a dictionary. This example uses the former approach.

import os
from datetime import timedelta, datetime, timezone
import pandas as pd
from azure.monitor.query import LogsQueryClient, LogsBatchQuery, LogsQueryStatus
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
client = LogsQueryClient(credential)
requests = [
    LogsBatchQuery(
        query="AzureActivity | summarize count()",
        timespan=timedelta(hours=1),
        workspace_id=os.environ['LOG_WORKSPACE_ID']
    ),
    LogsBatchQuery(
        query= """bad query""",
        timespan=timedelta(days=1),
        workspace_id=os.environ['LOG_WORKSPACE_ID']
    ),
    LogsBatchQuery(
        query= """let Weight = 92233720368547758;
        range x from 1 to 3 step 1
        | summarize percentilesw(x, Weight * 100, 50)""",
        workspace_id=os.environ['LOG_WORKSPACE_ID'],
        timespan=(datetime(2021, 6, 2, tzinfo=timezone.utc), datetime(2021, 6, 5, tzinfo=timezone.utc)), # (start, end)
        include_statistics=True
    ),
]
results = client.query_batch(requests)

for res in results:
    if res.status == LogsQueryStatus.FAILURE:
        # this will be a LogsQueryError
        print(res.message)
    elif res.status == LogsQueryStatus.PARTIAL:
        ## this will be a LogsQueryPartialResult
        print(res.partial_error)
        for table in res.partial_data:
            df = pd.DataFrame(table.rows, columns=table.columns)
            print(df)
    elif res.status == LogsQueryStatus.SUCCESS:
        ## this will be a LogsQueryResult
        table = res.tables[0]
        df = pd.DataFrame(table.rows, columns=table.columns)
        print(df)

Resource logs query

The following example demonstrates how to query logs directly from an Azure resource without the use of a Log Analytics workspace. Here, the query_resource method is used instead of query_workspace, and instead of a workspace ID, an Azure resource identifier is passed in (e.g. /subscriptions/{subscription-id}/resourceGroups/{resource-group-name}/providers/{resource-provider}/{resource-type}/{resource-name}).

import os
import pandas as pd
from datetime import timedelta
from azure.monitor.query import LogsQueryClient, LogsQueryStatus
from azure.core.exceptions import HttpResponseError
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential

credential  = DefaultAzureCredential()
client = LogsQueryClient(credential)

query = """AzureActivity | take 5"""

try:
    response = client.query_resource(os.environ['LOGS_RESOURCE_ID'], query, timespan=timedelta(days=1))
    if response.status == LogsQueryStatus.PARTIAL:
        error = response.partial_error
        data = response.partial_data
        print(error)
    elif response.status == LogsQueryStatus.SUCCESS:
        data = response.tables
    for table in data:
        df = pd.DataFrame(data=table.rows, columns=table.columns)
        print(df)
except HttpResponseError as err:
    print("something fatal happened")
    print(err)

Advanced logs query scenarios

Set logs query timeout

The following example shows setting a server timeout in seconds. A gateway timeout is raised if the query takes more time than the mentioned timeout. The default is 180 seconds and can be set up to 10 minutes (600 seconds).

import os
from datetime import timedelta
from azure.monitor.query import LogsQueryClient
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
client = LogsQueryClient(credential)

response = client.query_workspace(
    os.environ['LOG_WORKSPACE_ID'],
    "range x from 1 to 10000000000 step 1 | count",
    timespan=timedelta(days=1),
    server_timeout=600 # sets the timeout to 10 minutes
    )

Query multiple workspaces

The same logs query can be executed across multiple Log Analytics workspaces. In addition to the Kusto query, the following parameters are required:

  • workspace_id - The first (primary) workspace ID.
  • additional_workspaces - A list of workspaces, excluding the workspace provided in the workspace_id parameter. The parameter's list items may consist of the following identifier formats:
    • Qualified workspace names
    • Workspace IDs
    • Azure resource IDs

For example, the following query executes in three workspaces:

client.query_workspace(
    <workspace_id>,
    query,
    timespan=timedelta(days=1),
    additional_workspaces=['<workspace 2>', '<workspace 3>']
    )

A full sample can be found here.

Include statistics

To get logs query execution statistics, such as CPU and memory consumption:

  1. Set the include_statistics parameter to True.
  2. Access the statistics field inside the LogsQueryResult object.

The following example prints the query execution time:

query = "AzureActivity | top 10 by TimeGenerated"
result = client.query_workspace(
    <workspace_id>,
    query,
    timespan=timedelta(days=1),
    include_statistics=True
    )

execution_time = result.statistics.get("query", {}).get("executionTime")
print(f"Query execution time: {execution_time}")

The statistics field is a dict that corresponds to the raw JSON response, and its structure can vary by query. The statistics are found within the query property. For example:

{
  "query": {
    "executionTime": 0.0156478,
    "resourceUsage": {...},
    "inputDatasetStatistics": {...},
    "datasetStatistics": [{...}]
  }
}

Include visualization

To get visualization data for logs queries using the render operator:

  1. Set the include_visualization property to True.
  2. Access the visualization field inside the LogsQueryResult object.

For example:

query = (
    "StormEvents"
    "| summarize event_count = count() by State"
    "| where event_count > 10"
    "| project State, event_count"
    "| render columnchart"
)
result = client.query_workspace(
    <workspace_id>,
    query,
    timespan=timedelta(days=1),
    include_visualization=True
    )

print(f"Visualization result: {result.visualization}")

The visualization field is a dict that corresponds to the raw JSON response, and its structure can vary by query. For example:

{
  "visualization": "columnchart",
  "title": "the chart title",
  "accumulate": False,
  "isQuerySorted": False,
  "kind": None,
  "legend": None,
  "series": None,
  "yMin": "NaN",
  "yMax": "NaN",
  "xAxis": None,
  "xColumn": None,
  "xTitle": "x axis title",
  "yAxis": None,
  "yColumns": None,
  "ySplit": None,
  "yTitle": None,
  "anomalyColumns": None
}

Interpretation of the visualization data is left to the library consumer. To use this data with the Plotly graphing library, see the synchronous or asynchronous code samples.

Metrics query

The following example gets metrics for an Event Grid subscription. The resource URI is that of an Event Grid topic.

The resource URI must be that of the resource for which metrics are being queried. It's normally of the format /subscriptions/<id>/resourceGroups/<rg-name>/providers/<source>/topics/<resource-name>.

To find the resource URI:

  1. Navigate to your resource's page in the Azure portal.
  2. From the Overview blade, select the JSON View link.
  3. In the resulting JSON, copy the value of the id property.

NOTE: The metrics are returned in the order of the metric_names sent.

import os
from datetime import timedelta, datetime
from azure.monitor.query import MetricsQueryClient
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
client = MetricsQueryClient(credential)
start_time = datetime(2021, 5, 25)
duration = timedelta(days=1)
metrics_uri = os.environ['METRICS_RESOURCE_URI']
response = client.query_resource(
    metrics_uri,
    metric_names=["PublishSuccessCount"],
    timespan=(start_time, duration)
    )

for metric in response.metrics:
    print(metric.name)
    for time_series_element in metric.timeseries:
        for metric_value in time_series_element.data:
            print(metric_value.time_stamp)

Handle metrics query response

The metrics query API returns a MetricsQueryResult object. The MetricsQueryResult object contains properties such as a list of Metric-typed objects, granularity, namespace, and timespan. The Metric objects list can be accessed using the metrics param. Each Metric object in this list contains a list of TimeSeriesElement objects. Each TimeSeriesElement object contains data and metadata_values properties. In visual form, the object hierarchy of the response resembles the following structure:

MetricsQueryResult
|---granularity
|---timespan
|---cost
|---namespace
|---resource_region
|---metrics (list of `Metric` objects)
    |---id
    |---type
    |---name
    |---unit
    |---timeseries (list of `TimeSeriesElement` objects)
        |---metadata_values
        |---data (list of data points represented by `MetricValue` objects)

Example of handling response

import os
from azure.monitor.query import MetricsQueryClient, MetricAggregationType
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
client = MetricsQueryClient(credential)

metrics_uri = os.environ['METRICS_RESOURCE_URI']
response = client.query_resource(
    metrics_uri,
    metric_names=["MatchedEventCount"],
    aggregations=[MetricAggregationType.COUNT]
    )

for metric in response.metrics:
    print(metric.name)
    for time_series_element in metric.timeseries:
        for metric_value in time_series_element.data:
            if metric_value.count != 0:
                print(
                    "There are {} matched events at {}".format(
                        metric_value.count,
                        metric_value.time_stamp
                    )
                )

Troubleshooting

See our troubleshooting guide for details on how to diagnose various failure scenarios.

Next steps

To learn more about Azure Monitor, see the Azure Monitor service documentation.

Samples

The following code samples show common scenarios with the Azure Monitor Query client library.

Logs query samples

Metrics query samples

Contributing

This project welcomes contributions and suggestions. Most contributions require you to agree to a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) declaring that you have the right to, and actually do, grant us the rights to use your contribution. For details, visit cla.microsoft.com.

When you submit a pull request, a CLA-bot will automatically determine whether you need to provide a CLA and decorate the PR appropriately (e.g., label, comment). Simply follow the instructions provided by the bot. You will only need to do this once across all repositories using our CLA.

This project has adopted the Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct. For more information see the Code of Conduct FAQ or contact opencode@microsoft.com with any additional questions or comments.