Idle Connection Resiliency

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Connection resiliency is the principle that a broken idle connection can be reestablished, within certain constraints. If a connection to the database fails, connection resiliency allows the client to automatically try to reconnect. Connection resiliency is a property of the data source. Only SQL Server 2014 and later and Azure SQL Database support connection resiliency.

Connection resiliency is implemented with two connection keywords that can be added to connection strings: ConnectRetryCount and ConnectRetryInterval.

Keyword Values Default Description
ConnectRetryCount Integer between 0 and 255 (inclusive) 1 The maximum number of attempts to reestablish a broken connection before giving up. By default, a single attempt is made to reestablish a connection when broken. A value of 0 means that no reconnection will be attempted.
ConnectRetryInterval Integer between 1 and 60 (inclusive) 10 The time, in seconds, between attempts to reestablish a connection. The application will attempt to reconnect immediately upon detecting a broken connection, and will then wait ConnectRetryInterval seconds before trying again. This keyword is ignored if ConnectRetryCount is equal to 0.

If the product of ConnectRetryCount multiplied by ConnectRetryInterval is larger than LoginTimeout, then the client will stop attempting to connect once LoginTimeout is reached; otherwise, it will continue to try to reconnect until ConnectRetryCount is reached.


Connection resiliency applies when the connection is idle. Failures that occur while executing a transaction, for example, won't trigger reconnection attempts - they'll fail as would otherwise be expected. The following situations, known as non-recoverable session states, won't trigger reconnection attempts:

  • Temporary tables
  • Global and local cursors
  • Transaction context and session level transaction locks
  • Application locks
  • EXECUTE AS/REVERT security context
  • OLE automation handles
  • Prepared XML handles
  • Trace flags


The following code connects to a database and executes a query. The connection is interrupted by killing the session and a new query is attempted using the broken connection. This example uses the AdventureWorks sample database.

In this example, we specify a buffered cursor before breaking the connection. If we don't specify a buffered cursor, the connection wouldn't be reestablished because there would be an active server-side cursor. As such, the connection wouldn't be idle when broken. However, in that case we could call sqlsrv_free_stmt() before breaking the connection to vacate the cursor, and the connection would be successfully reestablished.

// This function breaks the connection by determining its session ID and killing it.
// A separate connection is used to break the main connection because a session
// cannot kill itself. The sleep() function ensures enough time has passed for KILL
// to finish ending the session.
function BreakConnection( $conn, $conn_break )
    $stmt1 = sqlsrv_query( $conn, "SELECT @@SPID" );
    if ( sqlsrv_fetch( $stmt1 ) )
        $spid=sqlsrv_get_field( $stmt1, 0 );

    $stmt2 = sqlsrv_prepare( $conn_break, "KILL ".$spid );
    sqlsrv_execute( $stmt2 );

// Connect to the local server using Windows authentication and specify
// AdventureWorks as the database in use. Specify values for
// ConnectRetryCount and ConnectRetryInterval as well.
$databaseName = 'AdventureWorks2022';
$serverName = '(local)';
$connectionInfo = array( "Database"=>$databaseName, "ConnectRetryCount"=>10, "ConnectRetryInterval"=>10 );

$conn = sqlsrv_connect( $serverName, $connectionInfo );
if( $conn === false)  
     echo "Could not connect.\n";  
     die( print_r( sqlsrv_errors(), true));  

// A separate connection that will be used to break the main connection $conn
$conn_break = sqlsrv_connect( $serverName, array( "Database"=>$databaseName) );

// Create a statement to retrieve the contents of a table
$stmt1 = sqlsrv_query( $conn, "SELECT * FROM HumanResources.Employee",
                       array(), array( "Scrollable"=>"buffered" ) );
if( $stmt1 === false )
     echo "Error in statement 1.\n";
     die( print_r( sqlsrv_errors(), true ));
    echo "Statement 1 successful.\n";
    $rowcount = sqlsrv_num_rows( $stmt1 );
    echo $rowcount." rows in result set.\n";

// Now break the connection $conn
BreakConnection( $conn, $conn_break );

// Create another statement. The connection will be reestablished.
$stmt2 = sqlsrv_query( $conn, "SELECT * FROM HumanResources.Department",
                       array(), array( "Scrollable"=>"buffered" ) );
if( $stmt2 === false )
     echo "Error in statement 2.\n";
     die( print_r( sqlsrv_errors(), true ));
    echo "Statement 2 successful.\n";
    $rowcount = sqlsrv_num_rows( $stmt2 );
    echo $rowcount." rows in result set.\n";

sqlsrv_close( $conn );
sqlsrv_close( $conn_break );

Expected output:

Statement 1 successful.
290 rows in result set.
Statement 2 successful.
16 rows in result set.

See also

Connection resiliency in the ODBC driver