Applies to: SQL Server
Detaches a database that is currently not in use from a server instance and, optionally, runs UPDATE STATISTICS on all tables before detaching.
For a replicated database to be detached, it must be unpublished. For more information, see the "Remarks" section later in this topic.
sp_detach_db [ @dbname= ] 'database_name' [ , [ @skipchecks= ] 'skipchecks' ] [ , [ @keepfulltextindexfile = ] 'KeepFulltextIndexFile' ]
[ @dbname = ] 'database_name'
Is the name of the database to be detached. database_name is a sysname value, with a default value of NULL.
[ @skipchecks = ] 'skipchecks'
Specifies whether to skip or run UPDATE STATISTIC. skipchecks is a nvarchar(10) value, with a default value of NULL. To skip UPDATE STATISTICS, specify true. To explicitly run UPDATE STATISTICS, specify false.
By default, UPDATE STATISTICS is performed to update information about the data in the tables and indexes. Performing UPDATE STATISTICS is useful for databases that are to be moved to read-only media.
[ @keepfulltextindexfile = ] 'KeepFulltextIndexFile'
Specifies that the full-text index file associated with the database that is being detached will not be dropped during the database detach operation. KeepFulltextIndexFile is a nvarchar(10) value with a default of true. If KeepFulltextIndexFile is false, all the full-text index files associated with the database and the metadata of the full-text index are dropped, unless the database is read-only. If NULL or true, full-text related metadata are kept.
The @keepfulltextindexfile parameter will be removed in a future version of SQL Server. Do not use this parameter in new development work, and modify applications that currently use this parameter as soon as possible.
Return Code Values
0 (success) or 1 (failure)
When a database is detached, all its metadata is dropped. If the database was the default database of any login accounts, master becomes their default database.
For information about how to view the default database of all the login accounts, see sp_helplogins (Transact-SQL). If you have the required permissions, you can use ALTER LOGIN to assign a new default database to a login.
A database cannot be detached if any of the following are true:
The database is currently in use. For more information, see "Obtaining Exclusive Access," later in this topic.
If replicated, the database is published.
Before you can detach the database, you must disable publishing by running sp_replicationdboption.
If you cannot use sp_replicationdboption, you can remove replication by running sp_removedbreplication.
A database snapshot exists on the database.
Before you can detach the database, you must drop all of its snapshots. For more information, see Drop a Database Snapshot (Transact-SQL).
A database snapshot cannot be detached or attached.
The database is being mirrored.
The database cannot be detached until the database mirroring session is terminated. For more information, see Removing Database Mirroring (SQL Server).
The database is suspect.
You must put a suspect database into emergency mode before you can detach the database. For more information about how to put a database into emergency mode, see ALTER DATABASE (Transact-SQL).
The database is a system database.
Obtaining Exclusive Access
Detaching a database requires exclusive access to the database. If the database that you want to detach is in use, before you can detach it, set the database to SINGLE_USER mode to obtain exclusive access.
Before you set the database to SINGLE_USER, verify that the AUTO_UPDATE_STATISTICS_ASYNC option is set to OFF. When this option is set to ON, the background thread that is used to update statistics takes a connection against the database, and you will be unable to access the database in single-user mode. For more information, see set a database to single user mode.
For example, the following
ALTER DATABASE statement obtains exclusive access to the AdventureWorks2022 database after all current users disconnect from the database.
USE master; ALTER DATABASE AdventureWorks2022 SET SINGLE_USER; GO
To force current users out of the database immediately or within a specified number of seconds, also use the ROLLBACK option: ALTER DATABASE database_name SET SINGLE_USER WITH ROLLBACK rollback_option. For more information, see ALTER DATABASE (Transact-SQL).
Reattaching a Database
The detached files remain and can be reattached by using CREATE DATABASE (with the FOR ATTACH or FOR ATTACH_REBUILD_LOG option). The files can be moved to another server and attached there.
Requires membership in the sysadmin fixed server role or membership in the db_owner role of the database.
The following example detaches the AdventureWorks2022 database with skipchecks set to true.
EXEC sp_detach_db 'AdventureWorks2022', 'true';
The following example detaches the AdventureWorks2022 database and keeps the full-text index files and the metadata of the full-text index. This command runs UPDATE STATISTICS, which is the default behavior.
exec sp_detach_db @dbname='AdventureWorks2022' , @keepfulltextindexfile='true';