sp_rename (Transact-SQL)

Applies to: SQL Server (all supported versions) Azure SQL Database Azure Synapse Analytics

Changes the name of a user-created object in the current database. This object can be a table, index, column, alias data type, or Microsoft .NET Framework common language runtime (CLR) user-defined type.

Note

In Azure Synapse Analytics, sp_rename is in Preview for dedicated SQL pools and can only be used to rename a COLUMN in a user object.

Caution

Changing any part of an object name can break scripts and stored procedures. We recommend you do not use this statement to rename stored procedures, triggers, user-defined functions, or views; instead, drop the object and re-create it with the new name.

Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

Syntax

Syntax for sp_rename in SQL Server and Azure SQL Database:

sp_rename [ @objname = ] 'object_name' , [ @newname = ] 'new_name'
    [ , [ @objtype = ] 'object_type' ]

Syntax for sp_rename (preview) in Azure Synapse Analytics:

sp_rename [ @objname = ] 'object_name' , [ @newname = ] 'new_name'
    , [ @objtype = ] 'COLUMN'

Arguments

[ @objname = ] 'object_name'

The current qualified or nonqualified name of the user object or data type. If the object to be renamed is a column in a table, object_name must be in the form table.column or schema.table.column. If the object to be renamed is an index, object_name must be in the form table.index or schema.table.index. If the object to be renamed is a constraint, object_name must be in the form schema.constraint.

Quotation marks are only necessary if a qualified object is specified. If a fully qualified name, including a database name, is provided, the database name must be the name of the current database. object_name is nvarchar(776), with no default.

[ @newname = ] 'new_name'

The new name for the specified object. new_name must be a one-part name and must follow the rules for identifiers. newname is sysname, with no default.

Note

Trigger names cannot start with # or ##.

[ @objtype = ] 'object_type'

The type of object being renamed. object_type is varchar(13), with a default of NULL, and can be one of these values.

Value Description
COLUMN A column to be renamed.
DATABASE A user-defined database. This object type is required when renaming a database.
INDEX A user-defined index. Renaming an index with statistics, also automatically renames the statistics.
OBJECT An item of a type tracked in sys.objects. For example, OBJECT could be used to rename objects including constraints (CHECK, FOREIGN KEY, PRIMARY/UNIQUE KEY), user tables, and rules.
STATISTICS Applies to: SQL Server 2012 (11.x) and later and Azure SQL Database.

Statistics created explicitly by a user or created implicitly with an index. Renaming the statistics of an index automatically renames the index as well.
USERDATATYPE A CLR user-defined type added by executing CREATE TYPE or sp_addtype.

[ @objtype = ] 'COLUMN'

Applies to: Azure Synapse Analytics

In sp_rename (preview) for Azure Synapse Analytics, COLUMN is a mandatory parameter specifying that the object type to be renamed is a column. It is a varchar(13) with no default value and must always be included in the sp_rename (preview) statement. A column can only be renamed if it is a non-distribution column.

Return code values

0 (success) or a nonzero number (failure)

Remarks

Applies to SQL Server (all supported versions) and Azure SQL Database:

  • sp_rename automatically renames the associated index whenever a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint is renamed. If a renamed index is tied to a PRIMARY KEY constraint, the PRIMARY KEY constraint is also automatically renamed by sp_rename.

  • sp_rename can be used to rename primary and secondary XML indexes.

  • Renaming a stored procedure, function, view, or trigger won't change the name of the corresponding object either in the definition column of the sys.sql_modules catalog view or obtained using the OBJECT_DEFINITION built-in function. Therefore, we recommend that sp_rename not be used to rename these object types. Instead, drop and re-create the object with its new name.

Applies to SQL Server (all supported versions), Azure SQL Database, and Azure Synapse Analytics:

  • Renaming an object such as a table or column won't automatically rename references to that object. You must modify any objects that reference the renamed object manually. For example, if you rename a table column and that column is referenced in a trigger, you must modify the trigger to reflect the new column name. Use sys.sql_expression_dependencies to list dependencies on the object before renaming it.

  • Renaming a column doesn't automatically update the metadata for any objects which SELECT all columns (using the *) from that table. For example, if you rename a table column and that column is referenced by a non-schema-bound view or function that SELECTs all columns (using the *), the metadata for the view or function continues to reflect the original column name. Refresh the metadata using sp_refreshsqlmodule or sp_refreshview.

  • You can change the name of an object or data type in the current database only. The names of most system data types and system objects can't be changed.

Permissions

To rename objects, columns, and indexes, requires ALTER permission on the object. To rename user types, requires CONTROL permission on the type. To rename a database, requires membership in the sysadmin or dbcreator fixed server roles. To rename a ledger table, ALTER LEDGER permission is required.

Examples

A. Rename a table

The following example renames the SalesTerritory table to SalesTerr in the Sales schema.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
EXEC sp_rename 'Sales.SalesTerritory', 'SalesTerr';
GO

B. Rename a column

The following example renames the TerritoryID column in the SalesTerritory table to TerrID.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
EXEC sp_rename 'Sales.SalesTerritory.TerritoryID', 'TerrID', 'COLUMN';
GO

C. Rename an index

The following example renames the IX_ProductVendor_VendorID index to IX_VendorID.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
EXEC sp_rename N'Purchasing.ProductVendor.IX_ProductVendor_VendorID', N'IX_VendorID', N'INDEX';
GO

D. Rename an alias data type

The following example renames the Phone alias data type to Telephone.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
EXEC sp_rename N'Phone', N'Telephone', N'USERDATATYPE';
GO

E. Rename constraints

The following examples rename a PRIMARY KEY constraint, a CHECK constraint and a FOREIGN KEY constraint. When renaming a constraint, the schema to which the constraint belongs must be specified.

USE AdventureWorks2012;
GO
-- Return the current Primary Key, Foreign Key and Check constraints for the Employee table.
SELECT name, SCHEMA_NAME(schema_id) AS schema_name, type_desc
FROM sys.objects
WHERE parent_object_id = (OBJECT_ID('HumanResources.Employee'))
AND type IN ('C','F', 'PK');
GO
  
-- Rename the primary key constraint.
EXEC sp_rename 'HumanResources.PK_Employee_BusinessEntityID', 'PK_EmployeeID';
GO
  
-- Rename a check constraint.
EXEC sp_rename 'HumanResources.CK_Employee_BirthDate', 'CK_BirthDate';
GO
  
-- Rename a foreign key constraint.
EXEC sp_rename 'HumanResources.FK_Employee_Person_BusinessEntityID', 'FK_EmployeeID';
  
-- Return the current Primary Key, Foreign Key and Check constraints for the Employee table.
SELECT name, SCHEMA_NAME(schema_id) AS schema_name, type_desc
FROM sys.objects
WHERE parent_object_id = (OBJECT_ID('HumanResources.Employee'))
AND type IN ('C','F', 'PK');
GO
name                                  schema_name        type_desc
------------------------------------- ------------------ ----------------------
FK_Employee_Person_BusinessEntityID   HumanResources     FOREIGN_KEY_CONSTRAINT
PK_Employee_BusinessEntityID          HumanResources     PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_BirthDate                 HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_MaritalStatus             HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_HireDate                  HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_Gender                    HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_VacationHours             HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_SickLeaveHours            HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
  
(7 row(s) affected)
  
name                                  schema_name        type_desc
------------------------------------- ------------------ ----------------------
FK_Employee_ID                        HumanResources     FOREIGN_KEY_CONSTRAINT
PK_Employee_ID                        HumanResources     PRIMARY_KEY_CONSTRAINT
CK_BirthDate                          HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_MaritalStatus             HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_HireDate                  HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_Gender                    HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_VacationHours             HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
CK_Employee_SickLeaveHours            HumanResources     CHECK_CONSTRAINT
  
(7 row(s) affected)

F. Rename statistics

The following example creates a statistics object named contactMail1 and then renames the statistic to NewContact by using sp_rename. When renaming statistics, the object must be specified in the format schema.table.statistics_name.

CREATE STATISTICS ContactMail1
    ON Person.Person (BusinessEntityID, EmailPromotion)
    WITH SAMPLE 5 PERCENT;
  
EXEC sp_rename 'Person.Person.ContactMail1', 'NewContact','Statistics';
  

Examples: Azure Synapse Analytics

G. Rename a column

The following example renames the c1 column in the table1 table to col1.

Note

This Azure Synapse Analytics feature is still in preview for dedicated SQL pools and is currently available only for objects in the dbo schema.

CREATE TABLE table1 (c1 INT, c2 INT);
EXEC sp_rename 'table1.c1', 'col1', 'COLUMN';
GO

See also