Applies to: SQL Server
Enables change data capture for the specified source table in the current database. When a table is enabled for change data capture, a record of each data manipulation language (DML) operation applied to the table is written to the transaction log. The change data capture process retrieves this information from the log and writes it to change tables that are accessed by using a set of functions.
Change data capture isn't available in every edition of SQL Server. For a list of features that are supported by the editions of SQL Server, see Editions and supported features of SQL Server 2022.
sys.sp_cdc_enable_table [ @source_schema = ] 'source_schema' , [ @source_name = ] 'source_name' [ , [ @capture_instance = ] 'capture_instance' ] [ , [ @supports_net_changes = ] supports_net_changes ] , [ @role_name = ] 'role_name' [ , [ @index_name = ] 'index_name' ] [ , [ @captured_column_list = ] N'captured_column_list' ] [ , [ @filegroup_name = ] 'filegroup_name' ] [ , [ @allow_partition_switch = ] 'allow_partition_switch' ] [ ; ]
[ @source_schema = ] 'source_schema'
The name of the schema in which the source table belongs. @source_schema is sysname, with no default, and can't be NULL.
[ @source_name = ] 'source_name'
The name of the source table on which to enable change data capture. @source_name is sysname, with no default, and can't be NULL.
source_name must exist in the current database. Tables in the
cdc schema can't be enabled for change data capture.
[ @role_name = ] 'role_name'
The name of the database role used to gate access to change data. @role_name is sysname and must be specified. If explicitly set to NULL, no gating role is used to limit access to the change data.
If the role currently exists, it's used. If the role doesn't exist, an attempt is made to create a database role with the specified name. The role name is trimmed of white space at the right of the string before attempting to create the role. If the caller isn't authorized to create a role within the database, the stored procedure operation fails.
[ @capture_instance = ] 'capture_instance'
The name of the capture instance used to name instance-specific change data capture objects. @capture_instance is sysname and can't be NULL.
If not specified, the name is derived from the source schema name plus the source table name in the format
<schemaname>_<sourcename>. @capture_instance can't exceed 100 characters and must be unique within the database. Whether specified or derived, @capture_instance is trimmed of any white space to the right of the string.
A source table can have a maximum of two capture instances. For more information, see, sys.sp_cdc_help_change_data_capture (Transact-SQL).
[ @supports_net_changes = ] supports_net_changes
Indicates whether support for querying for net changes is to be enabled for this capture instance. @supports_net_changes is bit with a default of
1 if the table has a primary key or the table has a unique index that has been identified by using the @index_name parameter. Otherwise, the parameter defaults to
0, only the support functions to query for all changes are generated.
1, the functions that are needed to query for net changes are also generated.
If @supports_net_changes is set to
1, @index_name must be specified, or the source table must have a defined primary key.
When @supports_net_changes is set to
1, an additional nonclustered index is created on the change table, and the net changes query function is created. Because this index needs to be maintained, enabling net changes can have a negative effect on CDC performance.
[ @index_name = ] 'index_name'
The name of a unique index to use to uniquely identify rows in the source table. @index_name is sysname and can be NULL. If specified, @index_name must be a valid unique index on the source table. If @index_name is specified, the identified index columns take precedence over any defined primary key columns as the unique row identifier for the table.
[ @captured_column_list = ] N'captured_column_list'
Identifies the source table columns that are to be included in the change table. @captured_column_list is nvarchar(max) and can be NULL. If NULL, all columns are included in the change table.
Column names must be valid columns in the source table. Columns defined in a primary key index, or columns defined in an index referenced by @index_name must be included.
@captured_column_list is a comma-separated list of column names. Individual column names within the list can be optionally quoted by using either double quotation marks (
"") or square brackets (
). If a column name contains an embedded comma, the column name must be quoted.
@captured_column_list can't contain the following reserved column names:
[ @filegroup_name = ] 'filegroup_name'
The filegroup to be used for the change table created for the capture instance. @filegroup_name is sysname and can be NULL. If specified, @filegroup_name must be defined for the current database. If NULL, the default filegroup is used.
We recommend creating a separate filegroup for change data capture change tables.
[ @allow_partition_switch = ] 'allow_partition_switch'
Indicates whether the SWITCH PARTITION command of ALTER TABLE can be executed against a table that is enabled for change data capture. @allow_partition_switch is bit, with a default of
For nonpartitioned tables, the switch setting is always 1, and the actual setting is ignored. If the switch is explicitly set to
0 for a nonpartitioned table, warning 22857 is issued to indicate that the switch setting has been ignored. If the switch is explicitly set to
0 for a partitioned table, the warning 22356 is issued to indicate that partition switch operations on the source table are disallowed. Finally, if the switch setting is either set explicitly to
1 or allowed to default to
1 and the enabled table is partitioned, warning 22855 is issued to indicate that partition switches won't be blocked. If any partition switches occur, change data capture doesn't track the changes resulting from the switch. This causes data inconsistencies when the change data is consumed.
SWITCH PARTITION is a metadata operation, but it causes data changes. The data changes that are associated with this operation aren't captured in the change data capture change tables. Consider a table that has three partitions, and changes are made to this table. The capture process tracks user insert, update, and delete operations that are executed against the table. However, if a partition is switched out to another table (for example, to perform a bulk delete), the rows that were moved as part of this operation aren't captured as deleted rows in the change table. Similarly, if a new partition that has prepopulated rows is added to the table, these rows aren't reflected in the change table. This can cause data inconsistency when the changes are consumed by an application and applied to a destination.
If you enable partition switching on SQL Server, you might also need split and merge operations in near future. Before executing a split or merge operation on a replicated or CDC enabled table, ensure that the partition in question doesn't have any pending replicated commands. You should also ensure that no DML operations are executed on the partition during the split and merge operations. If there are transactions which the log reader or CDC capture job hasn't processed, or if DML operations are performed on a partition of a replicated or CDC enabled table while a split or merge operation is executed (involving the same partition), it could lead to a processing error (error 608 - No catalog entry found for partition ID) with log reader agent or CDC capture job. In order to correct the error, it might require a reinitialization of the subscription or disabling CDC on that table or database.
Return code values
0 (success) or
Before you can enable a table for change data capture, the database must be enabled. To determine whether the database is enabled for change data capture, query the
is_cdc_enabled column in the sys.databases catalog view. To enable the database, use the sys.sp_cdc_enable_db stored procedure.
When change data capture is enabled for a table, a change table and one or two query functions are generated. The change table serves as a repository for the source table changes extracted from the transaction log by the capture process. The query functions are used to extract data from the change table. The names of these functions are derived from the @capture_instance parameter in the following ways:
- All changes function:
- Net changes function:
sys.sp_cdc_enable_table also creates the capture and cleanup jobs for the database if the source table is the first table in the database to be enabled for change data capture and no transactional publications exist for the database. It sets the
is_tracked_by_cdc column in the sys.tables catalog view to
SQL Server Agent doesn't have to be running when CDC is enabled for a table. However, the capture process doesn't process the transaction log and write entries to the change table unless SQL Server Agent is running.
Requires membership in the db_owner fixed database role.
A. Enable change data capture by specifying only required parameters
The following example enables change data capture for the
HumanResources.Employee table. Only the required parameters are specified.
USE AdventureWorks2022; GO EXECUTE sys.sp_cdc_enable_table @source_schema = N'HumanResources', @source_name = N'Employee', @role_name = N'cdc_Admin'; GO
B. Enable change data capture by specifying additional optional parameters
The following example enables change data capture for the
HumanResources.Department table. All parameters except @allow_partition_switch are specified.
USE AdventureWorks2022; GO EXEC sys.sp_cdc_enable_table @source_schema = N'HumanResources', @source_name = N'Department', @role_name = N'cdc_admin', @capture_instance = N'HR_Department', @supports_net_changes = 1, @index_name = N'AK_Department_Name', @captured_column_list = N'DepartmentID, Name, GroupName', @filegroup_name = N'PRIMARY'; GO