Returns the first value in an ordered set of values.
FIRST_VALUE ( [scalar_expression ] ) [ IGNORE NULLS | RESPECT NULLS ] OVER ( [ partition_by_clause ] order_by_clause [ rows_range_clause ] )
To view Transact-SQL syntax for SQL Server 2014 and earlier, see Previous versions documentation.
The value to be returned. scalar_expression can be a column, subquery, or other arbitrary expression that results in a single value. Other analytic functions aren't permitted.
[ IGNORE NULLS | RESPECT NULLS ]
Applies to: SQL Server (starting with SQL Server 2022 (16.x)), Azure SQL Database, Azure SQL Managed Instance, Azure SQL Edge
IGNORE NULLS - Ignore null values in the dataset when computing the first value over a partition.
RESPECT NULLS - Respect null values in the dataset when computing first value over a partition.
For more information, see Imputing missing values.
OVER ( [ partition_by_clause ] order_by_clause [ rows_range_clause ] )
The partition_by_clause divides the result set produced by the FROM clause into partitions to which the function is applied. If not specified, the function treats all rows of the query result set as a single group.
The order_by_clause determines the logical order in which the operation is performed. The order_by_clause is required.
The rows_range_clause further limits the rows within the partition by specifying start and end points.
For more information, see OVER Clause (Transact-SQL).
The same type as scalar_expression.
FIRST_VALUE is nondeterministic. For more information, see Deterministic and Nondeterministic Functions.
A. Use FIRST_VALUE over a query result set
The following example uses
FIRST_VALUE to return the name of the product that is the least expensive in a given product category.
USE AdventureWorks2012; GO SELECT Name, ListPrice, FIRST_VALUE(Name) OVER (ORDER BY ListPrice ASC) AS LeastExpensive FROM Production.Product WHERE ProductSubcategoryID = 37;
Here's the result set.
Name ListPrice LeastExpensive ----------------------- --------------------- -------------------- Patch Kit/8 Patches 2.29 Patch Kit/8 Patches Road Tire Tube 3.99 Patch Kit/8 Patches Touring Tire Tube 4.99 Patch Kit/8 Patches Mountain Tire Tube 4.99 Patch Kit/8 Patches LL Road Tire 21.49 Patch Kit/8 Patches ML Road Tire 24.99 Patch Kit/8 Patches LL Mountain Tire 24.99 Patch Kit/8 Patches Touring Tire 28.99 Patch Kit/8 Patches ML Mountain Tire 29.99 Patch Kit/8 Patches HL Road Tire 32.60 Patch Kit/8 Patches HL Mountain Tire 35.00 Patch Kit/8 Patches
B. Use FIRST_VALUE over partitions
The following example uses
FIRST_VALUE to return the employee with the fewest number of vacation hours compared to other employees with the same job title. The
PARTITION BY clause partitions the employees by job title and the
FIRST_VALUE function is applied to each partition independently. The
ORDER BY clause specified in the
OVER clause determines the logical order in which the
FIRST_VALUE function is applied to the rows in each partition. The
ROWS UNBOUNDED PRECEDING clause specifies the starting point of the window is the first row of each partition.
USE AdventureWorks2012; GO SELECT JobTitle, LastName, VacationHours, FIRST_VALUE(LastName) OVER (PARTITION BY JobTitle ORDER BY VacationHours ASC ROWS UNBOUNDED PRECEDING ) AS FewestVacationHours FROM HumanResources.Employee AS e INNER JOIN Person.Person AS p ON e.BusinessEntityID = p.BusinessEntityID ORDER BY JobTitle;
Here's a partial result set.
JobTitle LastName VacationHours FewestVacationHours ----------------------------------- ------------------------- ------------- ------------------- Accountant Moreland 58 Moreland Accountant Seamans 59 Moreland Accounts Manager Liu 57 Liu Accounts Payable Specialist Tomic 63 Tomic Accounts Payable Specialist Sheperdigian 64 Tomic Accounts Receivable Specialist Poe 60 Poe Accounts Receivable Specialist Spoon 61 Poe Accounts Receivable Specialist Walton 62 Poe