Applies to: SQL Server Azure SQL Database Azure SQL Managed Instance

Constructs a message from an existing message in sys.messages or from a provided string. The functionality of FORMATMESSAGE resembles that of the RAISERROR statement. However, RAISERROR prints the message immediately, while FORMATMESSAGE returns the formatted message for further processing.

Transact-SQL syntax conventions


FORMATMESSAGE ( { msg_number  | ' msg_string ' | @msg_variable} , [ param_value [ ,...n ] ] )  


To view Transact-SQL syntax for SQL Server 2014 (12.x) and earlier versions, see Previous versions documentation.


Is the ID of the message stored in sys.messages. If msg_number is <= 13000, or if the message does not exist in sys.messages, NULL is returned.

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 (13.x) through current version).

Is a string enclosed in single quotes and containing parameter value placeholders. The error message can have a maximum of 2,047 characters. If the message contains 2,048 or more characters, only the first 2,044 are displayed and an ellipsis is added to indicate that the message has been truncated. Note that substitution parameters consume more characters than the output shows because of internal storage behavior. For information about the structure of a message string and the use of parameters in the string, see the description of the msg_str argument in RAISERROR (Transact-SQL).

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 (13.x) through current version).

Is an nvarchar or varchar variable that contains a string complying with the criteria for msg_string above.

Is a parameter value for use in the message. Can be more than one parameter value. The values must be specified in the order in which the placeholder variables appear in the message. The maximum number of values is 20.

Return Types



Like the RAISERROR statement, FORMATMESSAGE edits the message by substituting the supplied parameter values for placeholder variables in the message. For more information about the placeholders allowed in error messages and the editing process, see RAISERROR (Transact-SQL).

FORMATMESSAGE looks up the message in the current language of the user. For system messages (msg_number <=50000), if there is no localized version of the message, the OS language version is used. For user messages (msg_number >50000), if there is no localized version of the message, the English version is used.

For localized messages, the supplied parameter values must correspond to the parameter placeholders in the U.S. English version. That is, parameter 1 in the localized version must correspond to parameter 1 in the U.S. English version, parameter 2 must correspond to parameter 2, and so on.


A. Example with a message number

The following example uses a replication message 20009 stored in sys.messages as, "The article '%s' could not be added to the publication '%s'." FORMATMESSAGE substitutes the values First Variable and Second Variable for the parameter placeholders. The resulting string, "The article 'First Variable' could not be added to the publication 'Second Variable'.", is stored in the local variable @var1.

SELECT text FROM sys.messages WHERE message_id = 20009 AND language_id = 1033;  
DECLARE @var1 VARCHAR(200);   
SELECT @var1 = FORMATMESSAGE(20009, 'First Variable', 'Second Variable');   
SELECT @var1;  

B. Example with a message string

Applies to: SQL Server ( SQL Server 2016 (13.x) through current version).

The following example takes a string as an input.

SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('This is the %s and this is the %s.', 'first variable', 'second variable') AS Result;  

Returns: This is the first variable and this is the second variable.

C. Additional message string formatting examples

The following examples show a variety of formatting options.

SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Signed int %i, %d %i, %d, %+i, %+d, %+i, %+d', 5, -5, 50, -50, -11, -11, 11, 11);
SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Signed int with up to 3 leading zeros %03i', 5);  
SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Signed int with up to 20 leading zeros %020i', 5);  
SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Signed int with leading zero 0 %020i', -55);  
SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Bigint %I64d', 3000000000);
SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Unsigned int %u, %u', 50, -50);  
SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Unsigned octal %o, %o', 50, -50);  
SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Unsigned hexadecimal %x, %X, %X, %X, %x', 11, 11, -11, 50, -50);  
SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Unsigned octal with prefix: %#o, %#o', 50, -50);  
SELECT FORMATMESSAGE('Unsigned hexadecimal with prefix: %#x, %#X, %#X, %X, %x', 11, 11, -11, 50, -50);  

See Also

THROW (Transact-SQL)
sp_addmessage (Transact-SQL)
sys.messages (Transact-SQL)
CONCAT (Transact-SQL)
CONCAT_WS (Transact-SQL)
REPLACE (Transact-SQL)
REVERSE (Transact-SQL)
STUFF (Transact-SQL)
System Functions (Transact-SQL)