VAR (Transact-SQL)

Applies to: SQL Server Azure SQL Database Azure SQL Managed Instance Azure Synapse Analytics Analytics Platform System (PDW) SQL analytics endpoint in Microsoft Fabric Warehouse in Microsoft Fabric

Returns the statistical variance of all values in the specified expression. May be followed by the OVER clause.

Transact-SQL syntax conventions


-- Aggregate Function Syntax   
VAR ( [ ALL | DISTINCT ] expression )  
-- Analytic Function Syntax  
VAR ([ ALL ] expression) OVER ( [ partition_by_clause ] order_by_clause)  


To view Transact-SQL syntax for SQL Server 2014 (12.x) and earlier versions, see Previous versions documentation.


Applies the function to all values. ALL is the default.

Specifies that each unique value is considered.

Is an expression of the exact numeric or approximate numeric data type category, except for the bit data type. Aggregate functions and subqueries are not permitted.

OVER ( [ partition_by_clause ] order_by_clause)
partition_by_clause divides the result set produced by the FROM clause into partitions to which the function is applied. If not specified, the function treats all rows of the query result set as a single group. order_by_clause determines the logical order in which the operation is performed. order_by_clause is required. For more information, see OVER Clause (Transact-SQL).

Return Types



If VAR is used on all items in a SELECT statement, each value in the result set is included in the calculation. VAR can be used with numeric columns only. Null values are ignored.

VAR is a deterministic function when used without the OVER and ORDER BY clauses. It is nondeterministic when specified with the OVER and ORDER BY clauses. For more information, see Deterministic and Nondeterministic Functions.


A: Using VAR

The following example returns the variance for all bonus values in the SalesPerson table in the AdventureWorks2022 database.

FROM Sales.SalesPerson;  

Examples: Azure Synapse Analytics and Analytics Platform System (PDW)

B: Using VAR

The following example returns the statistical variance of the sales quota values in the table dbo.FactSalesQuota. The first column contains the variance of all distinct values and the second column contains the variance of all values including any duplicates values.

-- Uses AdventureWorks  
SELECT VAR(DISTINCT SalesAmountQuota)AS Distinct_Values, VAR(SalesAmountQuota) AS All_Values  
FROM dbo.FactSalesQuota;  

Here is the result set.

Distinct_Values   All_Values
----------------  ----------------
159180469909.18   158762853821.10

C. Using VAR with OVER

The following example returns the statistical variance of the sales quota values for each quarter in a calendar year. Notice that the ORDER BY in the OVER clause orders the statistical variance and the ORDER BY of the SELECT statement orders the result set.

-- Uses AdventureWorks  
SELECT CalendarYear AS Year, CalendarQuarter AS Quarter, SalesAmountQuota AS SalesQuota,  
       VAR(SalesAmountQuota) OVER (ORDER BY CalendarYear, CalendarQuarter) AS Variance  
FROM dbo.FactSalesQuota  
WHERE EmployeeKey = 272 AND CalendarYear = 2002  
ORDER BY CalendarQuarter;  

Here is the result set.

Year  Quarter  SalesQuota              Variance
----  -------  ----------------------  -------------------
2002  1         91000.0000             null
2002  2        140000.0000             1200500000.00
2002  3         70000.0000             1290333333.33
2002  4        154000.0000             1580250000.00

See Also

Aggregate Functions (Transact-SQL)
OVER Clause (Transact-SQL)