Specifying Module and Function Owners

The !analyze and !owner extensions use a file that is named triage.ini to determine the owner of the symbols that the debugger encounters.

When you use these extensions, the identities of the function or module owner are displayed after the word "Followup".

The triage.ini file is a text file that resides in the \triage subdirectory of your Debugging Tools for Windows installation. A sample triage.ini file is included as part of the Debugging Tools for Windows package.

Warning   If you install an updated version of Debugging Tools for Windows in the same directory as the current version, it overwrites all of the files in that directory, including triage.ini. After you modify or replace the sample triage.ini file, save a copy of it to a different directory. After you reinstall the debuggers, you can copy the saved triage.ini over the default version.

Format of the triage.ini File

Although the triage.ini file is intended to help you determine the owner of a function that has broken into the debugger, the "owner" strings in this file can be anything that might help you with debugging. The strings can be names of people who wrote or maintain the code. Or, the strings can be short instructions about what you can do when an error occurs in a module or function.

Each line in this file has the following syntax.


You can add an asterisk (*) only at the end of a module or function name. If it appears elsewhere, it is interpreted as a literal character.

You cannot add spaces in the owner string. If spaces do exist in the owner string, they are ignored.

For more information about syntax options, see Special triage.ini Syntax.

The following examples shows a sample triage.ini file.


Triage.ini and !owner

When you pass a module or function name to the !owner extension, the debugger displays the word "Followup" followed by the name of the module or function's owner.

The following example uses the previous sample triage.ini file.

0:000> !owner module2!functionB
Followup:  Person3

According to the file, "Person3" owns module2!functionB, and "Person4" owns module2!funct\. Both of these strings match the argument that is passed to !owner, so the more complete match is used.

Triage.ini and !analyze

When you use the !analyze extension, the debugger looks at the top faulting frame in the stack and tries to determine the owner of the module and function in this frame. If the debugger can determine the owner, the owner information is displayed.

If the debugger cannot determine the owner, the debugger passes to the next stack frame, and so on, until the debugger determines the owner or the stack is completely examined.

If the debugger can determine the owner, the owner name is displayed after the word "Followup". If the debugger searches the whole stack without finding any information, no name is displayed.

The following example uses the sample triage.ini file that is given earlier in this topic.

Suppose the first frame on the stack is MyModule!someFunction. The debugger does not find MyModule in the triage.ini file. Next, it continues to the second frame on the stack.

Suppose the second frame is module3!anotherFunction. The debugger does see an entry for module3, but there is no match for anotherFunction in this module. Next, the debugger continues to the third frame.

Suppose the third frame is module2!functionC. The debugger first looks for an exact match, but such a match does not exist. The debugger then trims the function name and discovers module2!funct\* in triage.ini. This match ends the search, because the debugger determines that the owner is "Person4".

The debugger then displays output that is similar to the following example.

0:000> !analyze
*                                                                             *
*                        Exception Analysis                                   *
*                                                                             *

Use !analyze -v to get detailed debugging information.

Probably caused by : module2 ( module2!functionC+15a )

Followup: Person4

A more complete match takes precedence over a shorter match. However, a module name match is always preferred to a function name match. If module2!funct\* had not been in this triage.ini file, the debugger would have selected module2!\* as the match. And if both module2!funct\* and module2!\* were removed, mod*!functionC would have been selected.

Special triage.ini Syntax

If you omit the exclamation point and function name or add !\* after a module name, all functions in that module are indicated. If a function within this module is also specified separately, the more precise specification takes precedence.

If you use "default" as a module name or a function name, it is equivalent to a wildcard character. For example, nt!\* is the same as nt!default, and default is the same as *!\*.

If a match is made, but the word ignore appears to the right of the equal sign (=), the debugger continues to the next frame in the stack.

You can add last_ or maybe_ before an owner's name. This prefix gives the owner less priority when you run !analyze. The debugger chooses a definite match that is lower on the stack over a maybe_ match that is higher on the stack. The debugger also chooses a maybe_ match that is lower on the stack over a last_ match that is higher on the stack.

Sample triage.ini

A sample triage.ini template is included in the Debugging Tools for Windows package. You can add the owners of any modules and functions that you want to this file. If you want to have no global default, delete the default=MachineOwner line at the beginning of this file.