Encryption and data protection in Windows client

When people travel with their computers and devices, their confidential information travels with them. Wherever confidential data is stored, it must be protected against unauthorized access, whether through physical device theft or from malicious applications. Encryption and data protection features include:

  • Encrypted Hard Drive
  • BitLocker

Encrypted Hard Drive

Encrypted Hard Drive uses the rapid encryption provided by BitLocker Drive Encryption to enhance data security and management. By offloading the cryptographic operations to hardware, encrypted hard drives increase BitLocker performance and reduce CPU usage and power consumption. Because encrypted hard drives encrypt data quickly, enterprise devices can expand BitLocker deployment with minimal impact on productivity.

Encrypted hard drives provide:

  • Better performance: Encryption hardware, integrated into the drive controller, allows the drive to operate at full data rate with no performance degradation.
  • Strong security based in hardware: Encryption is always "on" and the keys for encryption never leave the hard drive. User authentication is performed by the drive before it will unlock, independently of the operating system.
  • Ease of use: Encryption is transparent to the user, and the user doesn't need to enable it. Encrypted hard drives are easily erased using on-board encryption key; there's no need to re-encrypt data on the drive.
  • Lower cost of ownership: There's no need for new infrastructure to manage encryption keys, since BitLocker uses your existing infrastructure to store recovery information. Your device operates more efficiently because processor cycles don't need to be used for the encryption process.

Encrypted hard drives are a new class of hard drives that are self-encrypted at a hardware level and allow for full disk hardware encryption.


BitLocker Drive Encryption is a data protection feature that integrates with the operating system and addresses the threats of data theft or exposure from lost, stolen, or inappropriately decommissioned computers.

BitLocker provides encryption for the operating system, fixed data, and removable data drives, using technologies like hardware security test interface (HSTI), Modern Standby, UEFI Secure Boot, and TPM.

Windows consistently improves data protection by improving existing options and providing new strategies.

Personal Data Encryption (PDE)

(Applies to: Windows 11, version 22H2 and later)

Personal data encryption (PDE) is a security feature introduced in Windows 11, version 22H2 that provides additional encryption features to Windows. PDE differs from BitLocker in that it encrypts individual files instead of whole volumes and disks. PDE occurs in addition to other encryption methods such as BitLocker.

PDE utilizes Windows Hello for Business to link data encryption keys with user credentials. This feature can minimize the number of credentials the user has to remember to gain access to files. For example, when using BitLocker with PIN, a user would need to authenticate twice - once with the BitLocker PIN and a second time with Windows credentials. This requirement requires users to remember two different credentials. With PDE, users only need to enter one set of credentials via Windows Hello for Business.

PDE is also accessibility friendly. For example, The BitLocker PIN entry screen doesn't have accessibility options. PDE however uses Windows Hello for Business, which does have accessibility features.

Unlike BitLocker that releases data encryption keys at boot, PDE doesn't release data encryption keys until a user signs in using Windows Hello for Business. Users will only be able to access their PDE encrypted files once they've signed into Windows using Windows Hello for Business. Additionally, PDE has the ability to also discard the encryption keys when the device is locked.


PDE is currently only available to developers via PDE APIs. There is no user interface in Windows to either enable PDE or encrypt files via PDE. Also, although there is an MDM policy that can enable PDE, there are no MDM policies that can be used to encrypt files via PDE.

See also