Load and unload device drivers
- Windows 11
- Windows 10
Describes the best practices, location, values, policy management, and security considerations for the Load and unload device drivers security policy setting.
This policy setting determines which users can dynamically load and unload device drivers. This user right isn't required if a signed driver for the new hardware already exists in the driver.cab file on the device. Device drivers run as highly privileged code. Windows supports the Plug and Play specifications that define how a computer can detect and configure newly added hardware, and then automatically install the device driver. Prior to Plug and Play, users needed to manually configure devices before attaching them to the device. This model allows a user to plug in the hardware, then Windows searches for an appropriate device driver package and automatically configures it to work without interfering with other devices.
Because device driver software runs as if it's a part of the operating system with unrestricted access to the entire computer, it's critical that only known and authorized device drivers be permitted.
- User-defined list of accounts
- Default values
- Not Defined
- Because of the potential security risk, don't assign this user right to any user, group, or process that you don't want to take over the system.
Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\User Rights Assignment
By default this setting is Administrators and Print Operators on domain controllers and Administrators on stand-alone servers.
The following table lists the actual and effective default policy values. Default values are also listed on the policy’s property page.
|Server type or GPO||Default value|
|Default Domain Policy||Not defined|
|Default Domain Controller Policy||Administrators
|Stand-Alone Server Default Settings||Administrators|
|Domain Controller Effective Default Settings||Administrators
|Member Server Effective Default Settings||Administrators|
|Client Computer Effective Default Settings||Administrators|
This section describes features, tools, and guidance to help you manage this policy.
A restart of the device isn't required for this policy setting to be effective.
Any change to the user rights assignment for an account becomes effective the next time the owner of the account logs on.
Settings are applied in the following order through a Group Policy Object (GPO), which will overwrite settings on the local computer at the next Group Policy update:
- Local policy settings
- Site policy settings
- Domain policy settings
- OU policy settings
When a local setting is greyed out, it indicates that a GPO currently controls that setting.
This section describes how an attacker might exploit a feature or its configuration, how to implement the countermeasure, and the possible negative consequences of countermeasure implementation.
Device drivers run as highly privileged code. A user who has the Load and unload device drivers user right could unintentionally install malware that masquerades as a device driver. Administrators should exercise care and install only drivers with verified digital signatures.
Note: You must have this user right or be a member of the local Administrators group to install a new driver for a local printer or to manage a local printer and configure defaults for options such as duplex printing.
Don't assign the Load and unload device drivers user right to any user or group other than Administrators on member servers. On domain controllers, don't assign this user right to any user or group other than Domain Admins.
If you remove the Load and unload device drivers user right from the Print Operators group or other accounts, you could limit the abilities of users who are assigned to specific administrative roles in your environment. You should ensure that delegated tasks aren't negatively affected.