Introduction to MonoTouch.Dialog for Xamarin.iOS

MonoTouch.Dialog, referred to as MT.D for short, is a rapid UI development toolkit that allows developers to build out application screens and navigation using information, rather than the tedium of creating view controllers, tables, etc. As such, it provides a significant simplification of UI development and code reduction. For example, consider the following screenshot:

For example, consider this screenshot

The following code was used to define this entire screen:

public enum Category
public class Expense
    [Section("Expense Entry")]

    [Entry("Enter expense name")]
    public string Name;
    [Section("Expense Details")]
    public string Details;
    public bool IsApproved = true;
    public Category ExpenseCategory;

When working with tables in iOS, there’s often a ton of repetitious code. For example, every time a table is needed, a data source is needed to populate that table. In an application that has two table-based screens that are connected via a navigation controller, each screen shares a lot of the same code.

MT.D simplifies that by encapsulating all of that code into a generic API for table creation. It then provides an abstraction on top of that API that allows for a declarative object binding syntax that makes it even easier. As such, there are two APIs available in MT.D:

  • Low-level Elements API – The Elements API is based on creating a hierarchal tree of elements that represent screens and their components. The Elements API gives developers the most flexibility and control in creating UIs. Additionally, the Elements API has advanced support for declarative definition via JSON, which allows for both incredibly fast declaration, as well as dynamic UI generation from a server.
  • High-Level Reflection API – Also known as the Binding API , in which classes are annotated with UI hints and then MT.D automatically creates screens based on the objects and provides a binding between what is displayed (and optionally edited) on screen, and the underlying object backing. The example above illustrated the use of the Reflection API. This API doesn’t provide the fine-grained control that the elements API does, but it reduces complexity even further by automatically building out the element hierarchy based on class attributes.

MT.D comes packed with a large set of built in UI elements for screen creation, but it also recognizes the need for customized elements and advanced screen layouts. As such, extensibility is a first-class featured baked into the API. Developers can extend the existing elements or create new ones and then integrate seamlessly.

Additionally, MT.D has a number of common iOS UX features built in such as “pull-to-refresh” support, asynchronous image loading, and search support.

This article will take a comprehensive look at working with MT.D, including:

  • MT.D Components – This will focus on understanding the classes that make up MT.D to enable getting up to speed quickly.
  • Elements Reference – A comprehensive list of the built-in elements of MT.D.
  • Advanced Usage – This covers advanced features such as pull-to-refresh, search, background image loading, using LINQ to build out element hierarchies, and creating custom elements, cells, and controllers for use with MT.D.

Setting up MT.D

MT.D is distributed with Xamarin.iOS. To use it, right-click on the References node of a Xamarin.iOS project in Visual Studio 2017 or Visual Studio for Mac and add a reference to the MonoTouch.Dialog-1 assembly. Then, add using MonoTouch.Dialog statements in your source code as necessary.

Understanding the Pieces of MT.D

Even when using the Reflection API, MT.D creates an Element hierarchy under the hood, just as if it were created via the Elements API directly. Also, the JSON support mentioned in the previous section creates Elements as well. For this reason, it’s important to have a basic understanding of the constituent pieces of MT.D.

MT.D builds screens using the following four parts:

  • DialogViewController
  • RootElement
  • Section
  • Element


A DialogViewController, or DVC for short, inherits from UITableViewController and therefore represents a screen with a table. DVCs can be pushed onto a navigation controller just like a regular UITableViewController.


A RootElement is the top-level container for the items that go into a DVC. It contains Sections, which can then contain Elements. RootElements are not rendered; instead they’re simply containers for what actually gets rendered. A RootElement is assigned to a DVC, and then the DVC renders its children.


A section is a group of cells in a table. As with a normal table section, it can optionally have a header and footer that can either be text, or even custom views, as in the following screenshot:

As with a normal table section, it can optionally have a header and footer that can either be text, or even custom views, as in this screenshot


An Element represents an actual cell in the table. MT.D comes packed with a wide variety of Elements that represent different data types or different inputs. For example, the following screenshots illustrate a few of the available elements:

For example, this screenshots illustrate a few of the available elements

More on Sections and RootElements

Let’s now discuss RootElements and Sections in greater detail.


At least one RootElement is required to start the MonoTouch.Dialog process.

If a RootElement is initialized with a section/element value then this value is used to locate a child Element that will provide a summary of the configuration, which is rendered on the right side of the display. For example, the screenshot below shows a table on the left with a cell containing the title of the detail screen on the right, “Dessert”, along with the value of the selected desert.

This screenshot shows a table on the left with a cell containing the title of the detail screen on the right, Dessert, along with the value of the selected desert This screenshot below shows a table on the left with a cell containing the title of the detail screen on the right, Dessert, along with the value of the selected desert

Root elements can also be used inside Sections to trigger loading a new nested configuration page, as shown above. When used in this mode the caption provided is used while rendered inside a section and is also used as the Title for the subpage. For example:

var root = new RootElement ("Meals") {
    new Section ("Dinner") {
        new RootElement ("Dessert", new RadioGroup ("dessert", 2)) {
            new Section () {
                new RadioElement ("Ice Cream", "dessert"),
                new RadioElement ("Milkshake", "dessert"),
                new RadioElement ("Chocolate Cake", "dessert")

In the above example, when the user taps on "Dessert", MonoTouch.Dialog will create a new page and navigate to it with the root being "Dessert" and having a radio group with three values.

In this particular sample, the radio group will select "Chocolate Cake" in the "Dessert" section because we passed the value "2" to the RadioGroup. This means pick the 3rd item on the list (zero-index).

Calling the Add method or using the C# 4 initializer syntax adds sections. The Insert methods are provided to insert sections with an animation.

If you create the RootElement with a Group instance (instead of a RadioGroup) the summary value of the RootElement when displayed in a Section will be the cumulative count of all the BooleanElements and CheckboxElements that have the same key as the Group.Key value.


Sections are used to group elements in the screen and they are the only valid direct children of the RootElement. Sections can contain any of the standard elements, including new RootElements.

RootElements embedded in a section are used to navigate to a new deeper level.

Sections can have headers and footers either as strings, or as UIViews. Typically you will just use the strings, but to create custom UIs you can use any UIView as the header or the footer. You can either use a string to create them like this:

var section = new Section ("Header", "Footer");

To use views, just pass the views to the constructor:

var header = new UIImageView (Image.FromFile ("sample.png"));
var section = new Section (header);

Getting Notified

Handling NSAction

MT.D surfaces an NSAction as a delegate for handling callbacks. For example, say you want to handle a touch event for a table cell created by MT.D. When creating an element with MT.D, simply supply a callback function, as shown below:

new Section () {
    new StringElement ("Demo Callback", delegate { Console.WriteLine ("Handled"); })

Retrieving Element Value

Combined with the Element.Value property, the callback can retrieve the value set in other elements. For example, consider the following code:

var element = new EntryElement (task.Name, "Enter task description", task.Description);
var taskElement = new RootElement (task.Name) {
    new Section () { element },
    new Section () { new DateElement ("Due Date", task.DueDate) },
    new Section ("Demo Retrieving Element Value") {
        new StringElement ("Output Task Description", delegate { Console.WriteLine (element.Value); })

This code creates a UI as shown below. For a complete walkthrough of this example, see the Elements API Walkthrough tutorial.

Combined with the Element.Value property, the callback can retrieve the value set in other elements

When the user presses the bottom table cell, the code in the anonymous function executes, writing the value from the element instance to the Application Output pad in Visual Studio for Mac.

Built-In Elements

MT.D comes with a number of built-in table cell items known as Elements. These elements are used to display a variety of different types in table cells such as strings, floats, dates and even images, to name just a few. Each element takes care of displaying the data type appropriately. For example, a boolean element will display a switch to toggle its value. Likewise, a float element will display a slider to change the float value.

There are even more complex elements to support richer data types such as images and html. For example, an html element, which will open a UIWebView to load a web page when selected, displays a caption in the table cell.

Working with Element Values

Elements that are used to capture user input expose a public Value property that holds the current value of the element at any time. It is automatically updated as the user uses the application.

This is the behavior for all of the Elements that are part of MonoTouch.Dialog, but it is not required for user-created elements.

String Element

A StringElement shows a caption on the left side of a table cell and the string value on the right side of the cell.

A StringElement shows a caption on the left side of a table cell and the string value on the right side of the cell

To use a StringElement as a button, provide a delegate.

new StringElement ("Click me", () => { 
    new UIAlertView("Tapped", "String Element Tapped", null, "ok", null).Show();

To use a StringElement as a button, provide a delegate

Styled String Element

A StyledStringElement allows strings to be presented using either built-in table cell styles or with custom formatting.

A StyledStringElement allows strings to be presented using either built-in table cell styles or with custom formatting

The StyledStringElement class derives from StringElement, but lets developers customize a handful of properties like the Font, text color, background cell color, line breaking mode, number of lines to display, and whether an accessory should be displayed.

Multiline Element

Multiline Element

Entry Element

The EntryElement, as the name implies, is used to get user input. It supports either regular strings or passwords, where characters are hidden.

The EntryElement is used to get user input

It is initialized with three values:

  • The caption for the entry that will be shown to the user.
  • Placeholder text (this is the greyed-out text that provides a hint to the user).
  • The value of the text.

The placeholder and value can be null. However, the caption is required.

At any point, accessing its Value property can retrieve the value of the EntryElement.

Additionally the KeyboardType property can be set at creation time to the keyboard type style desired for the data entry. This can be used to configure the keyboard using the values of UIKeyboardType as listed below:

  • Numeric
  • Phone
  • Url
  • Email

Boolean Element

Boolean Element

Checkbox Element

Checkbox Element

Radio Element

A RadioElement requires a RadioGroup to be specified in the RootElement.

mtRoot = new RootElement ("Demos", new RadioGroup("MyGroup", 0));

A RadioElement requires a RadioGroup to be specified in the RootElement

RootElements are also used to coordinate radio elements. The RadioElement members can span multiple Sections (for example to implement something similar to the ring tone selector and separate custom ring tones from system ringtones). The summary view will show the radio element that is currently selected. To use this, create the RootElement with the group constructor, like this:

var root = new RootElement ("Meals", new RadioGroup ("myGroup", 0));

The name of the group in RadioGroup is used to show the selected value in the containing page (if any) and the value, which is zero in this case, is the index of the first selected item.

Badge Element

Badge Element

Float Element

Float Element

Activity Element

Activity Element

Date Element

Date Element

When the cell corresponding to the DateElement is selected, a date picker is presented as shown below:

When the cell corresponding to the DateElement is selected, a date picker is presented as shown

Time Element

Time Element

When the cell corresponding to the TimeElement is selected, a time picker is presented as shown below:

When the cell corresponding to the TimeElement is selected, a time picker is presented as shown

DateTime Element

DateTime Element

When the cell corresponding to the DateTimeElement is selected, a datetime picker is presented as shown below:

When the cell corresponding to the DateTimeElement is selected, a datetime picker is presented as shown

HTML Element

HTML Element

The HTMLElement displays the value of its Caption property in the table cell. Whe selected, the Url assigned to the element is loaded in a UIWebView control as shown below:

Whe selected, the Url assigned to the element is loaded in a UIWebView control as shown below

Message Element

Message Element

Load More Element

Use this element to allow users to load more items in your list. You can customize the normal and loading captions, as well as the font and text color. The UIActivity indicator starts animating, and the loading caption is displayed when a user taps the cell, and then the NSAction passed into the constructor is executed. Once your code in the NSAction is finished, the UIActivity indicator stops animating and the normal caption is displayed again.

UIView Element

Additionally, any custom UIView can be displayed using the UIViewElement.

Owner-Drawn Element

This element must be subclassed as it is an abstract class. You should override the Height(RectangleF bounds) method in which you should return the height of the element, as well as Draw(RectangleF bounds, CGContext context, UIView view) in which you should do all your customized drawing within the given bounds, using the context and view parameters. This element does the heavy lifting of subclassing a UIView, and placing it in the cell to be returned, leaving you only needing to implement two simple overrides. You can see a better sample implementation in the sample app in the DemoOwnerDrawnElement.cs file.

Here's a very simple example of implementing the class:

public class SampleOwnerDrawnElement : OwnerDrawnElement
    public SampleOwnerDrawnElement (string text) : base(UITableViewCellStyle.Default, "sampleOwnerDrawnElement")
        this.Text = text;

    public string Text { get; set; }

    public override void Draw (RectangleF bounds, CGContext context, UIView view)

        view.DrawString(this.Text, new RectangleF(10, 15, bounds.Width - 20, bounds.Height - 30), UIFont.BoldSystemFontOfSize(14.0f), UILineBreakMode.TailTruncation);

    public override float Height (RectangleF bounds)
        return 44.0f;

JSON Element

The JsonElement is a subclass of RootElement that extends a RootElement to be able to load the contents of nested child from a local or remote url.

The JsonElement is a RootElement that can be instantiated in two forms. One version creates a RootElement that will load the contents on demand. These are created by using the JsonElement constructors that take an extra argument at the end, the url to load the contents from:

var je = new JsonElement ("Dynamic Data", "");

The other form creates the data from a local file or an existing System.Json.JsonObject that you have already parsed:

var je = JsonElement.FromFile ("json.sample");
using (var reader = File.OpenRead ("json.sample"))
    return JsonElement.FromJson (JsonObject.Load (reader) as JsonObject, arg);

For more information on using JSON with MT.D, see the JSON Element Walkthrough tutorial.

Other Features

Pull-to-Refresh Support

Pull-to- Refresh is a visual effect originally found in the Tweetie2 app, which became a popular effect among many applications.

To add automatic pull-to-refresh support to your dialogs, you only need to do two things: hook up an event handler to be notified when the user pulls the data and notify the DialogViewController when the data has been loaded to go back to its default state.

Hooking up a notification is simple; just connect to the RefreshRequested event on the DialogViewController, like this:

dvc.RefreshRequested += OnUserRequestedRefresh;

Then on your method OnUserRequestedRefresh, you would queue some data loading, request some data from the net, or spin a thread to compute the data. Once the data has been loaded, you must notify the DialogViewController that the new data is in, and to restore the view to its default state, you do this by calling ReloadComplete:

dvc.ReloadComplete ();

Search Support

To support searching, set the EnableSearch property on your DialogViewController. You can also set the SearchPlaceholder property to use as the watermark text in the search bar.

Searching will change the contents of the view as the user types. It searches the visible fields and shows those to the user. The DialogViewController exposes three methods to programmatically initiate, terminate or trigger a new filter operation on the results. These methods are listed below:

  • StartSearch
  • FinishSearch
  • PerformFilter

The system is extensible, so you can alter this behavior if you want.

Background Image Loading

MonoTouch.Dialog incorporates the TweetStation application’s image loader. This image loader can be used to load images in the background, supports caching and can notify your code when the image has been loaded.

It will also limit the number of outgoing network connections.

The image loader is implemented in the ImageLoader class, all you need to do is call the DefaultRequestImage method, you will need to provide the Uri for the image you want to load, as well as an instance of the IImageUpdated interface which will be invoked when the image has been loaded.

For example the following code loads an image from a Url into a BadgeElement:

string uriString = " image url";

var rootElement = new RootElement("Image Loader") {
    new Section() {
        new BadgeElement( ImageLoader.DefaultRequestImage( new Uri(uriString), this), "Xamarin")

The ImageLoader class exposes a Purge method that you can call when you want to release all of the images that are currently cached in memory. The current code has a cache for 50 images. If you want to use a different cache size (for instance, if you are expecting the images to be too large that 50 images would be too much), you can just create instances of ImageLoader and pass the number of images you want to keep in the cache.

Using LINQ to Create Element Hierarchy

Via the clever usage of LINQ and C#’s initialization syntax, LINQ can be used to create an element hierarchy. For example, the following code creates a screen from some string arrays and handles cell selection via an anonymous function that is passed into each StringElement:

var rootElement = new RootElement ("LINQ root element") {
    from x in new string [] { "one", "two", "three" }
    select new Section (x) {
        from y in "Hello:World".Split (':')
        select (Element) new StringElement (y, delegate { Debug.WriteLine("cell tapped"); })

This could easily be combined with an XML data store or data from a database to create complex applications nearly entirely from data.

Extending MT.D

Creating Custom Elements

You can create your own element by inheriting from either an existing Element or by deriving from the root class Element.

To create your own Element, you will want to override the following methods:

// To release any heavy resources that you might have
void Dispose (bool disposing);

// To retrieve the UITableViewCell for your element
// you would need to prepare the cell to be reused, in the
// same way that UITableView expects reusable cells to work
UITableViewCell GetCell (UITableView tv);

// To retrieve a "summary" that can be used with
// a root element to render a summary one level up.  
string Summary ();

// To detect when the user has tapped on the cell
void Selected (DialogViewController dvc, UITableView tableView, NSIndexPath path);

// If you support search, to probe if the cell matches the user input
bool Matches (string text);

If your element can have a variable size, you need to implement the IElementSizing interface, which contains one method:

// Returns the height for the cell at indexPath.Section, indexPath.Row
float GetHeight (UITableView tableView, NSIndexPath indexPath);

If you are planning on implementing your GetCell method by calling base.GetCell(tv) and customizing the returned cell, you need to also override the CellKey property to return a key that will be unique to your Element, like this:

static NSString MyKey = new NSString ("MyKey");
protected override NSString CellKey {
    get {
        return MyKey;

This works for most elements, but not for the StringElement and StyledStringElement as those use their own set of keys for various rendering scenarios. You would have to replicate the code in those classes.

DialogViewControllers (DVCs)

Both the Reflection and the Elements API use the same DialogViewController. Sometimes you will want to customize the look of the view or you might want to use some features of the UITableViewController that go beyond the basic creation of UIs.

The DialogViewController is merely a subclass of the UITableViewController and you can customize it in the same way that you would customize a UITableViewController.

For example, if you wanted to change the list style to be either Grouped or Plain, you could set this value by changing the property when you create the controller, like this:

var myController = new DialogViewController (root, true) {
    Style = UITableViewStyle.Grouped;

For more advanced customizations of the DialogViewController, such as setting its background, you would subclass it and override the proper methods, as shown in the example below:

class SpiffyDialogViewController : DialogViewController {
    UIImage image;

    public SpiffyDialogViewController (RootElement root, bool pushing, UIImage image) 
        : base (root, pushing) 
        this.image = image;

    public override LoadView ()
        base.LoadView ();
        var color = UIColor.FromPatternImage(image);
        TableView.BackgroundColor = UIColor.Clear;
        ParentViewController.View.BackgroundColor = color;

Another customization point is the following virtual methods in the DialogViewController:

public override Source CreateSizingSource (bool unevenRows)

This method should return a subclass of DialogViewController.Source for cases where your cells are evenly sized, or a subclass of DialogViewController.SizingSource if your cells are uneven.

You can use this override to capture any of the UITableViewSource methods. For example, TweetStation uses this to track when the user has scrolled to the top and update accordingly the number of unread tweets.


Elements do not provide validation themselves as the models that are well suited for web pages and desktop applications do not map directly to the iPhone interaction model.

If you want to do data validation, you should do this when the user triggers an action with the data entered. For example a Done or Next button on the top toolbar, or some StringElement used as a button to go to the next stage.

This is where you would perform basic input validation, and perhaps more complicated validation like checking for the validity of a user/password combination with a server.

How you notify the user of an error is application specific. You could pop up a UIAlertView or show a hint.


This article covered a lot of information about MonoTouch.Dialog. It discussed the fundamentals of the how MT.D works and covered the various components that comprise MT.D. It also showed the wide array of elements and table customizations supported by MT.D and discussed how MT.D can be extended with custom elements. Additionally it explained the JSON support in MT.D that allows creating elements dynamically from JSON.