Creación de una máquina virtual Windows con una plantilla de Resource Manager

Se aplica a: ✔️ Máquinas virtuales Windows

Aprenda a crear una máquina virtual Windows mediante una plantilla de Azure Resource Manager y Azure PowerShell desde Azure Cloud Shell. La plantilla usada en este artículo implementa una sola máquina virtual que ejecuta Windows Server en una nueva red virtual con una sola subred. Para la creación de una máquina virtual Linux, consulte Procedimiento para crear una máquina virtual Linux con plantillas de Azure Resource Manager.

Una alternativa consiste en implementar la plantilla desde Azure Portal. Para abrir la plantilla en Azure Portal, haga clic en el botón Implementar en Azure.

Deploy to Azure

Creación de una máquina virtual

La creación de una máquina virtual de Azure normalmente incluye dos pasos:

  • Cree un grupo de recursos. Un grupo de recursos de Azure es un contenedor lógico en el que se implementan y se administran los recursos de Azure. Se debe crear un grupo de recursos antes de una máquina virtual.
  • Cree una máquina virtual.

En el siguiente ejemplo se crea una máquina virtual de segunda generación de manera predeterminada a partir de una plantilla de inicio rápido de Azure. Esta es una copia de la plantilla:

{
  "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2019-04-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
  "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
  "metadata": {
    "_generator": {
      "name": "bicep",
      "version": "0.8.9.13224",
      "templateHash": "15495738823141086515"
    }
  },
  "parameters": {
    "adminUsername": {
      "type": "string",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Username for the Virtual Machine."
      }
    },
    "adminPassword": {
      "type": "secureString",
      "minLength": 12,
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Password for the Virtual Machine."
      }
    },
    "dnsLabelPrefix": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "[toLower(format('{0}-{1}', parameters('vmName'), uniqueString(resourceGroup().id, parameters('vmName'))))]",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Unique DNS Name for the Public IP used to access the Virtual Machine."
      }
    },
    "publicIpName": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "myPublicIP",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Name for the Public IP used to access the Virtual Machine."
      }
    },
    "publicIPAllocationMethod": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "Dynamic",
      "allowedValues": [
        "Dynamic",
        "Static"
      ],
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Allocation method for the Public IP used to access the Virtual Machine."
      }
    },
    "publicIpSku": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "Basic",
      "allowedValues": [
        "Basic",
        "Standard"
      ],
      "metadata": {
        "description": "SKU for the Public IP used to access the Virtual Machine."
      }
    },
    "OSVersion": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "2022-datacenter-azure-edition-core",
      "allowedValues": [
        "2008-R2-SP1",
        "2008-R2-SP1-smalldisk",
        "2012-Datacenter",
        "2012-datacenter-gensecond",
        "2012-Datacenter-smalldisk",
        "2012-datacenter-smalldisk-g2",
        "2012-Datacenter-zhcn",
        "2012-datacenter-zhcn-g2",
        "2012-R2-Datacenter",
        "2012-r2-datacenter-gensecond",
        "2012-R2-Datacenter-smalldisk",
        "2012-r2-datacenter-smalldisk-g2",
        "2012-R2-Datacenter-zhcn",
        "2012-r2-datacenter-zhcn-g2",
        "2016-Datacenter",
        "2016-datacenter-gensecond",
        "2016-datacenter-gs",
        "2016-Datacenter-Server-Core",
        "2016-datacenter-server-core-g2",
        "2016-Datacenter-Server-Core-smalldisk",
        "2016-datacenter-server-core-smalldisk-g2",
        "2016-Datacenter-smalldisk",
        "2016-datacenter-smalldisk-g2",
        "2016-Datacenter-with-Containers",
        "2016-datacenter-with-containers-g2",
        "2016-datacenter-with-containers-gs",
        "2016-Datacenter-zhcn",
        "2016-datacenter-zhcn-g2",
        "2019-Datacenter",
        "2019-Datacenter-Core",
        "2019-datacenter-core-g2",
        "2019-Datacenter-Core-smalldisk",
        "2019-datacenter-core-smalldisk-g2",
        "2019-Datacenter-Core-with-Containers",
        "2019-datacenter-core-with-containers-g2",
        "2019-Datacenter-Core-with-Containers-smalldisk",
        "2019-datacenter-core-with-containers-smalldisk-g2",
        "2019-datacenter-gensecond",
        "2019-datacenter-gs",
        "2019-Datacenter-smalldisk",
        "2019-datacenter-smalldisk-g2",
        "2019-Datacenter-with-Containers",
        "2019-datacenter-with-containers-g2",
        "2019-datacenter-with-containers-gs",
        "2019-Datacenter-with-Containers-smalldisk",
        "2019-datacenter-with-containers-smalldisk-g2",
        "2019-Datacenter-zhcn",
        "2019-datacenter-zhcn-g2",
        "2022-datacenter",
        "2022-datacenter-azure-edition",
        "2022-datacenter-azure-edition-core",
        "2022-datacenter-azure-edition-core-smalldisk",
        "2022-datacenter-azure-edition-smalldisk",
        "2022-datacenter-core",
        "2022-datacenter-core-g2",
        "2022-datacenter-core-smalldisk",
        "2022-datacenter-core-smalldisk-g2",
        "2022-datacenter-g2",
        "2022-datacenter-smalldisk",
        "2022-datacenter-smalldisk-g2"
      ],
      "metadata": {
        "description": "The Windows version for the VM. This will pick a fully patched image of this given Windows version."
      }
    },
    "vmSize": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "Standard_D2s_v5",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Size of the virtual machine."
      }
    },
    "location": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "[resourceGroup().location]",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Location for all resources."
      }
    },
    "vmName": {
      "type": "string",
      "defaultValue": "simple-vm",
      "metadata": {
        "description": "Name of the virtual machine."
      }
    }
  },
  "variables": {
    "storageAccountName": "[format('bootdiags{0}', uniqueString(resourceGroup().id))]",
    "nicName": "myVMNic",
    "addressPrefix": "10.0.0.0/16",
    "subnetName": "Subnet",
    "subnetPrefix": "10.0.0.0/24",
    "virtualNetworkName": "MyVNET",
    "networkSecurityGroupName": "default-NSG"
  },
  "resources": [
    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts",
      "apiVersion": "2021-04-01",
      "name": "[variables('storageAccountName')]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "sku": {
        "name": "Standard_LRS"
      },
      "kind": "Storage"
    },
    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses",
      "apiVersion": "2021-02-01",
      "name": "[parameters('publicIpName')]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "sku": {
        "name": "[parameters('publicIpSku')]"
      },
      "properties": {
        "publicIPAllocationMethod": "[parameters('publicIPAllocationMethod')]",
        "dnsSettings": {
          "domainNameLabel": "[parameters('dnsLabelPrefix')]"
        }
      }
    },
    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups",
      "apiVersion": "2021-02-01",
      "name": "[variables('networkSecurityGroupName')]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "securityRules": [
          {
            "name": "default-allow-3389",
            "properties": {
              "priority": 1000,
              "access": "Allow",
              "direction": "Inbound",
              "destinationPortRange": "3389",
              "protocol": "Tcp",
              "sourcePortRange": "*",
              "sourceAddressPrefix": "*",
              "destinationAddressPrefix": "*"
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks",
      "apiVersion": "2021-02-01",
      "name": "[variables('virtualNetworkName')]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "addressSpace": {
          "addressPrefixes": [
            "[variables('addressPrefix')]"
          ]
        },
        "subnets": [
          {
            "name": "[variables('subnetName')]",
            "properties": {
              "addressPrefix": "[variables('subnetPrefix')]",
              "networkSecurityGroup": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups', variables('networkSecurityGroupName'))]"
              }
            }
          }
        ]
      },
      "dependsOn": [
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkSecurityGroups', variables('networkSecurityGroupName'))]"
      ]
    },
    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces",
      "apiVersion": "2021-02-01",
      "name": "[variables('nicName')]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "ipConfigurations": [
          {
            "name": "ipconfig1",
            "properties": {
              "privateIPAllocationMethod": "Dynamic",
              "publicIPAddress": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses', parameters('publicIpName'))]"
              },
              "subnet": {
                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks/subnets', variables('virtualNetworkName'), variables('subnetName'))]"
              }
            }
          }
        ]
      },
      "dependsOn": [
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses', parameters('publicIpName'))]",
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks', variables('virtualNetworkName'))]"
      ]
    },
    {
      "type": "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines",
      "apiVersion": "2021-03-01",
      "name": "[parameters('vmName')]",
      "location": "[parameters('location')]",
      "properties": {
        "hardwareProfile": {
          "vmSize": "[parameters('vmSize')]"
        },
        "osProfile": {
          "computerName": "[parameters('vmName')]",
          "adminUsername": "[parameters('adminUsername')]",
          "adminPassword": "[parameters('adminPassword')]"
        },
        "storageProfile": {
          "imageReference": {
            "publisher": "MicrosoftWindowsServer",
            "offer": "WindowsServer",
            "sku": "[parameters('OSVersion')]",
            "version": "latest"
          },
          "osDisk": {
            "createOption": "FromImage",
            "managedDisk": {
              "storageAccountType": "StandardSSD_LRS"
            }
          },
          "dataDisks": [
            {
              "diskSizeGB": 1023,
              "lun": 0,
              "createOption": "Empty"
            }
          ]
        },
        "networkProfile": {
          "networkInterfaces": [
            {
              "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces', variables('nicName'))]"
            }
          ]
        },
        "diagnosticsProfile": {
          "bootDiagnostics": {
            "enabled": true,
            "storageUri": "[reference(resourceId('Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts', variables('storageAccountName'))).primaryEndpoints.blob]"
          }
        }
      },
      "dependsOn": [
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces', variables('nicName'))]",
        "[resourceId('Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts', variables('storageAccountName'))]"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "outputs": {
    "hostname": {
      "type": "string",
      "value": "[reference(resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses', parameters('publicIpName'))).dnsSettings.fqdn]"
    }
  }
}

Para ejecutar el script de PowerShell, seleccione Pruébelo para abrir el shell de Azure Cloud. Para pegar el script, haga clic con el botón derecho en el shell y luego seleccione Pegar:

$resourceGroupName = Read-Host -Prompt "Enter the Resource Group name"
$location = Read-Host -Prompt "Enter the location (i.e. centralus)"
$adminUsername = Read-Host -Prompt "Enter the administrator username"
$adminPassword = Read-Host -Prompt "Enter the administrator password" -AsSecureString
$dnsLabelPrefix = Read-Host -Prompt "Enter an unique DNS name for the public IP"

New-AzResourceGroup -Name $resourceGroupName -Location "$location"
New-AzResourceGroupDeployment `
    -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName `
    -TemplateUri "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Azure/azure-quickstart-templates/master/quickstarts/microsoft.compute/vm-simple-windows/azuredeploy.json" `
    -adminUsername $adminUsername `
    -adminPassword $adminPassword `
    -dnsLabelPrefix $dnsLabelPrefix

 (Get-AzVm -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName).name

Si decide instalar y usar PowerShell de forma local en lugar de en el shell de Azure Cloud, en este tutorial necesitará el módulo de Azure PowerShell. Ejecute Get-Module -ListAvailable Az para encontrar la versión. Si necesita actualizarla, consulte Instalación del módulo de Azure PowerShell. Si PowerShell se ejecuta localmente, también debe ejecutar Connect-AzAccount para crear una conexión con Azure.

En el ejemplo anterior, especificó una plantilla almacenada en GitHub. También puede descargar o crear una plantilla y especificar la ruta de acceso local con el parámetro --template-file.

Estos son algunos recursos adicionales:

Conexión a la máquina virtual

El último comando de PowerShell del script anterior muestra el nombre de la máquina virtual. Para conectarse a la máquina virtual, consulte Conexión a una máquina virtual de Azure donde se ejecuta Windows e inicio de sesión en esta.

Pasos siguientes

Para más información sobre cómo crear plantillas, vea las propiedades y la sintaxis de JSON para los tipos de recursos que ha implementado: