Create teleportation with Q#

Completed

Now it's your turn to help Alice and Bob with their quantum teleportation experiment! You'll create a quantum teleportation program in Q# that uses the quantum teleportation protocol to send the state of a qubit from Alice to Bob.

Note

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Create a quantum teleportation program in Q#

1. Open Visual Studio Code.
2. Select File > New Text File and save it as Teleportation.qs.
3. Select View -> Command Palette and type Q#: Set the Azure Quantum QIR target profile. Press Enter.
4. Select Q#: Unrestricted.

Define the Teleport operation

First, you need to define the Teleport operation that implements the quantum teleportation protocol. The operation takes two qubits as input: the message qubit that contains the quantum state to be teleported and the bob qubit that will receive the state.

operation Teleport(message : Qubit, bob : Qubit) : Unit {
// Allocate an alice qubit.
use alice = Qubit();

// Create some entanglement that we can use to send our message.
H(alice);
CNOT(alice, bob);

// Encode the message into the entangled pair.
CNOT(message, alice);
H(message);

// Measure the qubits to extract the classical data we need to decode
// the message by applying the corrections on the bob qubit
// accordingly.
if M(message) == One {
Z(bob);
}
if M(alice) == One {
X(bob);
}

// Reset alice qubit before releasing.
Reset(alice);
}


Let's break down the Teleport operation:

1. The operation uses the alice qubit and creates entanglement between alice and bob qubits. The message qubit is then entangled with the alice qubit, so the two qubits are entangled with the bob qubit, and the message is encoded.

2. Then, you need to measure alice and message qubits in the Bell basis. How can you express a measurement in the Bell basis in Q#? You can't. Or at least not directly. In Q# you have the M operation, which performs a measurement in the $Z$-basis or computational basis. So to use the M operation correctly, you need to transform the Bell states into the computational basis states. You can do this by applying a H operation to the message qubit. The following table shows the correspondence between the Bell states and the computational basis states.

Bell state Computational basis state
$\ket{\phi^+}$ $\ket{00}$
$\ket{\phi^-}$ $\ket{01}$
$\ket{\psi^+}$ $\ket{10}$
$\ket{\psi^-}$ $\ket{11}$

Tip

A good exercise is to verify the equivalence of the Bell states and the computational basis states after applying the Hadamard operation to the first qubit. Good luck!

3. Finally, the if statements check the measurement results and apply corrections to the bob qubit accordingly. If the message qubit is measured in One, you apply the Z gate to the bob qubit. If the alice qubit is also measured in One you apply the X gate to the bob qubit.

Define the SetToPlus and SetToMinus operations

In case you'd like to teleport qubits in different states, such as |0⟩, |1⟩, |+⟩, and |−⟩, you have to define the initialized states. You already have the Teleport operation to teleport the qubit, but you need to prepare the qubit in the correct state before teleporting it.

You need to define two more operations, SetToPlus and SetToMinus, to set a qubit in state |0⟩ to |+⟩ and |−⟩, respectively.

    /// Sets a qubit in state |0⟩ to |+⟩.
operation SetToPlus(q : Qubit) : Unit is Adj + Ctl {
H(q);
}

/// Sets a qubit in state |0⟩ to |−⟩.
operation SetToMinus(q : Qubit) : Unit is Adj + Ctl {
X(q);
H(q);
}


Run the program

Your quantum teleportation program is ready! You can run the program to see how quantum teleportation works for different quantum states. The program initializes the message qubit in different states and teleports the state to the bob qubit.

The following code contains the Teleport operation, the SetToPlus and SetToMinus operations, and the Main operation that runs the teleportation protocol for different quantum states.

1. Copy and paste the following code into your Teleportation.qs file.

/// This Q# program implements quantum teleportation.
namespace Teleportation {
open Microsoft.Quantum.Diagnostics;
open Microsoft.Quantum.Intrinsic;
open Microsoft.Quantum.Measurement;

@EntryPoint()
operation Main() : Result[] {
// Allocate the message and bob qubits.
use (message, bob) = (Qubit(), Qubit());

// Use the Teleport operation to send different quantum states.
let stateInitializerBasisTuples = [
("|0〉", I, PauliZ),
("|1〉", X, PauliZ),
("|+〉", SetToPlus, PauliX),
("|-〉", SetToMinus, PauliX)
];

mutable results = [];
for (state, initializer, basis) in stateInitializerBasisTuples {
// Initialize the message and show its state using the DumpMachine
// function.
initializer(message);
Message($"Teleporting state {state}"); DumpMachine(); // Teleport the message and show the quantum state after // teleportation. Teleport(message, bob); Message($"Received state {state}");
DumpMachine();

// Measure bob in the corresponding basis and reset the qubits to
// continue teleporting more messages.
let result = Measure([basis], [bob]);
set results += [result];
ResetAll([message, bob]);
}

return results;
}

/// # Summary
/// Sends the state of one qubit to a bob qubit by using teleportation.
///
/// Notice that after calling Teleport, the state of message is collapsed.
///
/// # Input
/// ## message
/// A qubit whose state we wish to send.
/// ## bob
/// A qubit initially in the |0〉 state that we want to send
/// the state of message to.
operation Teleport(message : Qubit, bob : Qubit) : Unit {
// Allocate an alice qubit.
use alice = Qubit();

// Create some entanglement that we can use to send our message.
H(alice);
CNOT(alice, bob);

// Encode the message into the entangled pair.
CNOT(message, alice);
H(message);

// Measure the qubits to extract the classical data we need to decode
// the message by applying the corrections on the bob qubit
// accordingly.
if M(message) == One {
Z(bob);
}
if M(alice) == One {
X(bob);
}

// Reset alice qubit before releasing.
Reset(alice);
}

/// # Summary
/// Sets a qubit in state |0⟩ to |+⟩.
operation SetToPlus(q : Qubit) : Unit is Adj + Ctl {
H(q);
}

/// # Summary
/// Sets a qubit in state |0⟩ to |−⟩.
operation SetToMinus(q : Qubit) : Unit is Adj + Ctl {
X(q);
H(q);
}
}

2. To run your program locally on the built-in simulator, click on Run from the list of commands below @EntryPoint(), or press Ctrl+F5. Your output will appear in the debug console.

3. Check that the received states match the teleporting states. For example:

Teleporting state |0〉

DumpMachine:

Basis | Amplitude      | Probability | Phase
-----------------------------------------------
|00⟩ |  1.0000+0.0000𝑖 |   100.0000% |   0.0000