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Приложения ASP.NET, использующие дескрипторы ожидания

Модели обратного вызова и опроса для обработки асинхронных операций полезны, если приложение обрабатывает только одну асинхронную операцию за раз. Модели ожидания обеспечивают более гибкий способ обработки нескольких асинхронных операций. Имеются две модели ожидания, называемые по именам методов WaitHandle, используемых для их реализации: модель ожидания Wait (Any) и модель ожидания Wait (All).

Для использования любой модели ожидания необходимо использовать свойство AsyncWaitHandle объекта IAsyncResult, возвращаемого методами BeginExecuteNonQuery, BeginExecuteReader или BeginExecuteXmlReader. Для методов WaitAny и WaitAll требуется отправить объекты WaitHandle в виде аргумента, сгруппированного в массив.

Оба метода ожидания отслеживают асинхронные операции, ожидая завершения. Метод WaitAny ожидает завершения или истечения времени ожидания любой из операций. Как только станет известно о завершении определенной операции, вы сможете обработать ее результаты, а затем продолжить ожидание завершения или истечения времени ожидания следующей. Метод WaitAll ожидает завершения или истечения времени ожидания всех процессов в массиве экземпляров WaitHandle, прежде чем продолжить работу.

Модели ожидания наиболее эффективны в тех случаях, когда необходимо выполнить несколько операций с одинаковой длиной на разных серверах или если сервер достаточно мощный для одновременной обработки всех запросов. В приведенных здесь примерах три запроса имитируют долгосрочные процессы, добавляя команды WAITFOR различной длины к несущественным запросам SELECT.

Пример. Модель ожидания Wait (Any)

В следующем примере показана модель ожидания Wait (Any). После запуска трех асинхронных процессов вызывается метод WaitAny для ожидания завершения любого из процессов. По мере завершения каждого процесса вызывается метод EndExecuteReader и считывается полученный объект SqlDataReader. На этом этапе реальное приложение, скорее всего, будет использовать SqlDataReader для заполнения части страницы. В этом простом примере время завершения процесса добавляется в текстовое поле, соответствующее процессу. Вместе эти значения времени в текстовых полях показывают, что код выполняется после каждого завершения процесса.

Для настройки этого примера создайте новый проект веб-узла ASP.NET. Поместите элемент управления Button и четыре элемента управления TextBox на странице (принимая имя по умолчанию для каждого элемента управления).

Добавьте следующий код в класс формы, изменив при необходимости строку подключения для вашей среды.

' Add these to the top of the class
Imports System
Imports System.Data
Imports System.Data.SqlClient
Imports System.Threading

' Add this code to the page's class:
    Private Function GetConnectionString() As String
        ' To avoid storing the connection string in your code,
        ' you can retrieve it from a configuration file.

        ' If you have not included "Asynchronous Processing=true"
        ' in the connection string, the command will not be able
        ' to execute asynchronously.
        Return "Data Source=(local);Integrated Security=SSPI;" & _
          "Initial Catalog=AdventureWorks;" & _
          "Asynchronous Processing=true"
    End Function

    Sub Button1_Click( _
     ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs)

        ' In a real-world application, you might be connecting to
        '  three different servers or databases. For the example,
        '  we connect to only one.
        Dim connection1 As New SqlConnection(GetConnectionString())
        Dim connection2 As New SqlConnection(GetConnectionString())
        Dim connection3 As New SqlConnection(GetConnectionString())

        ' To keep the example simple, all three asynchronous
        ' processes select a row from the same table. WAITFOR
        ' commands are used to emulate long-running processes
        ' that complete after different periods of time.
        Dim commandText1 As String = _
            "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:01';" & _
            "SELECT * FROM Production.Product " & _
            "WHERE ProductNumber = 'BL-2036'"

        Dim commandText2 As String = _
            "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:05';" & _
            "SELECT * FROM Production.Product " & _
            "WHERE ProductNumber = 'BL-2036'"

        Dim commandText3 As String = _
            "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10';" & _
            "SELECT * FROM Production.Product " & _
            "WHERE ProductNumber = 'BL-2036'"

        Dim waitHandles(2) As WaitHandle
        Try
            ' For each process, open a connection and begin execution.
            ' Use the IAsyncResult object returned by
            ' BeginExecuteReader to add a WaitHandle for the process
            ' to the array.
            connection1.Open()
            Dim command1 As New SqlCommand(commandText1, connection1)
            Dim result1 As IAsyncResult = _
             command1.BeginExecuteReader()
            waitHandles(0) = result1.AsyncWaitHandle

            connection2.Open()
            Dim command2 As New SqlCommand(commandText2, connection2)
            Dim result2 As IAsyncResult = _
             command2.BeginExecuteReader()
            waitHandles(1) = result2.AsyncWaitHandle

            connection3.Open()
            Dim command3 As New SqlCommand(commandText3, connection3)
            Dim result3 As IAsyncResult = _
             command3.BeginExecuteReader()
            waitHandles(2) = result3.AsyncWaitHandle

            Dim index As Integer
            For countWaits As Integer = 1 To 3
                ' WaitAny waits for any of the processes to complete.
                ' The return value is either the index of the
                ' array element whose process just completed, or
                ' the WaitTimeout value.
                index = WaitHandle.WaitAny(waitHandles, 60000, False)
                ' This example doesn't actually do anything with the
                ' data returned by the processes, but the code opens
                ' readers for each just to demonstrate the concept.
                ' Instead of using the returned data to fill the
                ' controls on the page, the example adds the time
                ' the process was completed to the corresponding
                ' text box.
                Select Case index
                    Case 0
                        Dim reader1 As SqlDataReader
                        reader1 = command1.EndExecuteReader(result1)
                        If reader1.Read Then
                            TextBox1.Text = _
                             "Completed " & _
                             System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString()
                        End If
                        reader1.Close()

                    Case 1
                        Dim reader2 As SqlDataReader
                        reader2 = command2.EndExecuteReader(result2)
                        If reader2.Read Then
                            TextBox2.Text = _
                             "Completed " & _
                             System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString()
                        End If
                        reader2.Close()
                    Case 2
                        Dim reader3 As SqlDataReader
                        reader3 = command3.EndExecuteReader(result3)
                        If reader3.Read Then
                            TextBox3.Text = _
                             "Completed " & _
                             System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString()
                        End If
                        reader3.Close()
                    Case WaitHandle.WaitTimeout
                        Throw New Exception("Timeout")
                End Select

            Next
        Catch ex As Exception
            TextBox4.Text = ex.ToString
        End Try
        connection1.Close()
        connection2.Close()
        connection3.Close()

    End Sub
// Add the following using directives, if they aren't already there.
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Configuration;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Security;
using System.Web.UI;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts;
using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls;
using System.Threading;
using System.Data.SqlClient;

// Add this code to the page's class
string GetConnectionString()
     //  To avoid storing the connection string in your code,
     //  you can retrieve it from a configuration file.
     //  If you have not included "Asynchronous Processing=true"
     //  in the connection string, the command will not be able
     //  to execute asynchronously.
{
     return "Data Source=(local);Integrated Security=SSPI;" +
          "Initial Catalog=AdventureWorks;" +
          "Asynchronous Processing=true";
}
void Button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
     //  In a real-world application, you might be connecting to
     //   three different servers or databases. For the example,
     //   we connect to only one.

     SqlConnection connection1 =
          new SqlConnection(GetConnectionString());
     SqlConnection connection2 =
          new SqlConnection(GetConnectionString());
     SqlConnection connection3 =
          new SqlConnection(GetConnectionString());
     //  To keep the example simple, all three asynchronous
     //  processes select a row from the same table. WAITFOR
     //  commands are used to emulate long-running processes
     //  that complete after different periods of time.

     string commandText1 = "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:01';" +
          "SELECT * FROM Production.Product " +
          "WHERE ProductNumber = 'BL-2036'";
     string commandText2 = "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:05';" +
          "SELECT * FROM Production.Product " +
          "WHERE ProductNumber = 'BL-2036'";
     string commandText3 = "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10';" +
          "SELECT * FROM Production.Product " +
          "WHERE ProductNumber = 'BL-2036'";
     try
          //  For each process, open a connection and begin
          //  execution. Use the IAsyncResult object returned by
          //  BeginExecuteReader to add a WaitHandle for the
          //  process to the array.
     {
          connection1.Open();
          SqlCommand command1 =
               new SqlCommand(commandText1, connection1);
          IAsyncResult result1 = command1.BeginExecuteReader();
          WaitHandle waitHandle1 = result1.AsyncWaitHandle;

          connection2.Open();
          SqlCommand command2 =
               new SqlCommand(commandText2, connection2);
          IAsyncResult result2 = command2.BeginExecuteReader();
          WaitHandle waitHandle2 = result2.AsyncWaitHandle;

          connection3.Open();
          SqlCommand command3 =
               new SqlCommand(commandText3, connection3);
          IAsyncResult result3 = command3.BeginExecuteReader();
          WaitHandle waitHandle3 = result3.AsyncWaitHandle;

          WaitHandle[] waitHandles = {
               waitHandle1, waitHandle2, waitHandle3
          };

          int index;
          for (int countWaits = 0; countWaits <= 2; countWaits++)
          {
               //  WaitAny waits for any of the processes to
               //  complete. The return value is either the index
               //  of the array element whose process just
               //  completed, or the WaitTimeout value.

               index = WaitHandle.WaitAny(waitHandles,
                    60000, false);
               //  This example doesn't actually do anything with
               //  the data returned by the processes, but the
               //  code opens readers for each just to demonstrate
               //  the concept.
               //  Instead of using the returned data to fill the
               //  controls on the page, the example adds the time
               //  the process was completed to the corresponding
               //  text box.

               switch (index)
               {
                    case 0:
                         SqlDataReader reader1;
                         reader1 =
                              command1.EndExecuteReader(result1);
                         if (reader1.Read())
                         {
                           TextBox1.Text =
                           "Completed " +
                           System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString();
                         }
                         reader1.Close();
                         break;
                    case 1:
                         SqlDataReader reader2;
                         reader2 =
                              command2.EndExecuteReader(result2);
                         if (reader2.Read())
                         {
                           TextBox2.Text =
                           "Completed " +
                           System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString();
                         }
                         reader2.Close();
                         break;
                    case 2:
                         SqlDataReader reader3;
                         reader3 =
                              command3.EndExecuteReader(result3);
                         if (reader3.Read())
                         {
                           TextBox3.Text =
                           "Completed " +
                           System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString();
                         }
                         reader3.Close();
                         break;
                    case WaitHandle.WaitTimeout:
                         throw new Exception("Timeout");
                         break;
               }
          }
     }
     catch (Exception ex)
     {
          TextBox4.Text = ex.ToString();
     }
     connection1.Close();
     connection2.Close();
     connection3.Close();
}

Пример. Модель ожидания Wait (All)

В следующем примере показана модель ожидания Wait (All). После запуска трех асинхронных процессов вызывается метод WaitAll для ожидания завершения процессов или истечения времени их ожидания.

Как и в примере модели ожидания Wait (Any), время завершения процесса добавляется в текстовое поле, соответствующее процессу. Как уже упоминалось выше, значения времени в текстовых полях показывают, что код, следующий за методом WaitAny, выполняется только после завершения всех процессов.

Для настройки этого примера создайте новый проект веб-узла ASP.NET. Поместите элемент управления Button и четыре элемента управления TextBox на странице (принимая имя по умолчанию для каждого элемента управления).

Добавьте следующий код в класс формы, изменив при необходимости строку подключения для вашей среды.

' Add these to the top of the class
Imports System
Imports System.Data
Imports System.Data.SqlClient
Imports System.Threading

' Add this code to the page's class:
    Private Function GetConnectionString() As String
        ' To avoid storing the connection string in your code,
        ' you can retrieve it from a configuration file.

        ' If you have not included "Asynchronous Processing=true"
        ' in the connection string, the command will not be able
        ' to execute asynchronously.
        Return "Data Source=(local);Integrated Security=SSPI;" & _
          "Initial Catalog=AdventureWorks;" & _
          "Asynchronous Processing=true"
    End Function
    Sub Button1_Click( _
     ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs)

        ' In a real-world application, you might be connecting to
        '  three different servers or databases. For the example,
        '  we connect to only one.
        Dim connection1 As New SqlConnection(GetConnectionString())
        Dim connection2 As New SqlConnection(GetConnectionString())
        Dim connection3 As New SqlConnection(GetConnectionString())

        ' To keep the example simple, all three asynchronous
        ' processes select a row from the same table. WAITFOR
        ' commands are used to emulate long-running processes
        ' that complete after different periods of time.
        Dim commandText1 As String = _
         "UPDATE Production.Product " & _
         "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint + 1 " & _
         "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null;" & _
         "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:01';" & _
         "UPDATE Production.Product " & _
         "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint - 1 " & _
         "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null"

        Dim commandText2 As String = _
         "UPDATE Production.Product " & _
         "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint + 1 " & _
         "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null;" & _
         "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:05';" & _
         "UPDATE Production.Product " & _
         "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint - 1 " & _
         "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null"

        Dim commandText3 As String = _
         "UPDATE Production.Product " & _
         "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint + 1 " & _
         "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null;" & _
         "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10';" & _
         "UPDATE Production.Product " & _
         "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint - 1 " & _
         "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null"

        Dim waitHandles(2) As WaitHandle

        Try
            ' For each process, open a connection and begin execution.
            ' Use the IAsyncResult object returned by
            ' BeginExecuteReader to add a WaitHandle for the process
            ' to the array.
            connection1.Open()
            Dim command1 As New SqlCommand(commandText1, connection1)
            Dim result1 As IAsyncResult = _
             command1.BeginExecuteNonQuery()
            waitHandles(0) = result1.AsyncWaitHandle

            connection2.Open()
            Dim command2 As New SqlCommand(commandText2, connection2)
            Dim result2 As IAsyncResult = _
             command2.BeginExecuteNonQuery()
            waitHandles(1) = result2.AsyncWaitHandle

            connection3.Open()
            Dim command3 As New SqlCommand(commandText3, connection3)
            Dim result3 As IAsyncResult = _
             command3.BeginExecuteNonQuery()
            waitHandles(2) = result3.AsyncWaitHandle

            ' WaitAll waits for all of the processes to complete.
            ' The return value is True if all processes completed,
            ' False if any process timed out.
            Dim result As Boolean = _
             WaitHandle.WaitAll(waitHandles, 60000, False)
            If result Then
                Dim rowCount1 As Long = _
                 command1.EndExecuteNonQuery(result1)
                TextBox1.Text = _
                 "Completed " & _
                 System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString()

                Dim rowCount2 As Long = _
                 command2.EndExecuteNonQuery(result2)
                TextBox2.Text = _
                 "Completed " & _
                 System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString()

                Dim rowCount3 As Long = _
                 command3.EndExecuteNonQuery(result3)
                TextBox3.Text = _
                 "Completed " & _
                 System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString()
            Else
                Throw New Exception("Timeout")
            End If
        Catch ex As Exception
            TextBox4.Text = ex.ToString
        End Try
        connection1.Close()
        connection2.Close()
        connection3.Close()

    End Sub
// Add the following using directives, if they aren't already there.
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Configuration;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Security;
using System.Web.UI;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts;
using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls;
using System.Threading;
using System.Data.SqlClient;

// Add this code to the page's class
string GetConnectionString()
    //  To avoid storing the connection string in your code,
    //  you can retrieve it from a configuration file.
    //  If you have not included "Asynchronous Processing=true"
    //  in the connection string, the command will not be able
    //  to execute asynchronously.
{
    return "Data Source=(local);Integrated Security=SSPI;" +
        "Initial Catalog=AdventureWorks;" +
        "Asynchronous Processing=true";
}
void Button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
    //  In a real-world application, you might be connecting to
    //   three different servers or databases. For the example,
    //   we connect to only one.

    SqlConnection connection1 =
        new SqlConnection(GetConnectionString());
    SqlConnection connection2 =
        new SqlConnection(GetConnectionString());
    SqlConnection connection3 =
        new SqlConnection(GetConnectionString());
    //  To keep the example simple, all three asynchronous
    //  processes execute UPDATE queries that result in
      //  no change to the data. WAITFOR
    //  commands are used to emulate long-running processes
    //  that complete after different periods of time.

    string commandText1 =
        "UPDATE Production.Product " +
        "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint + 1 " +
        "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null;" +
        "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:01';" +
        "UPDATE Production.Product " +
        "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint - 1 " +
        "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null";

    string commandText2 =
      "UPDATE Production.Product " +
      "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint + 1 " +
      "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null;" +
      "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:05';" +
      "UPDATE Production.Product " +
      "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint - 1 " +
      "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null";

    string commandText3 =
       "UPDATE Production.Product " +
       "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint + 1 " +
       "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null;" +
       "WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10';" +
       "UPDATE Production.Product " +
       "SET ReorderPoint = ReorderPoint - 1 " +
       "WHERE ReorderPoint Is Not Null";
    try
        //  For each process, open a connection and begin
        //  execution. Use the IAsyncResult object returned by
        //  BeginExecuteReader to add a WaitHandle for the
        //  process to the array.
    {
        connection1.Open();
        SqlCommand command1 =
            new SqlCommand(commandText1, connection1);
        IAsyncResult result1 = command1.BeginExecuteNonQuery();
        WaitHandle waitHandle1 = result1.AsyncWaitHandle;
        connection2.Open();

        SqlCommand command2 =
            new SqlCommand(commandText2, connection2);
        IAsyncResult result2 = command2.BeginExecuteNonQuery();
        WaitHandle waitHandle2 = result2.AsyncWaitHandle;
        connection3.Open();

        SqlCommand command3 =
            new SqlCommand(commandText3, connection3);
        IAsyncResult result3 = command3.BeginExecuteNonQuery();
        WaitHandle waitHandle3 = result3.AsyncWaitHandle;

        WaitHandle[] waitHandles = {
            waitHandle1, waitHandle2, waitHandle3
        };

        bool result;
        //  WaitAll waits for all of the processes to
        //  complete. The return value is True if the processes
        //  all completed successfully, False if any process
        //  timed out.

        result = WaitHandle.WaitAll(waitHandles, 60000, false);
        if(result)
        {
            long rowCount1 =
                command1.EndExecuteNonQuery(result1);
            TextBox1.Text = "Completed " +
                System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString();
            long rowCount2 =
                command2.EndExecuteNonQuery(result2);
            TextBox2.Text = "Completed " +
                System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString();

            long rowCount3 =
                command3.EndExecuteNonQuery(result3);
            TextBox3.Text = "Completed " +
                System.DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString();
        }
        else
        {
            throw new Exception("Timeout");
        }
    }

    catch (Exception ex)
    {
        TextBox4.Text = ex.ToString();
    }
    connection1.Close();
    connection2.Close();
    connection3.Close();
}

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