在 Azure SQL Database 中,使用 PowerShell 在多個資料庫之間同步處理資料

適用于:Azure SQL資料庫

此 Azure PowerShell 指令碼會設定 SQL 資料同步在 Azure SQL Database 中於多個資料庫之間同步處理。

如果您沒有 Azure 訂用帳戶,請在開始之前先建立 Azure 免費帳戶

注意

本文使用 Azure Az PowerShell 模組,這是與 Azure 互動時建議使用的 PowerShell 模組。 若要開始使用 Az PowerShell 模組,請參閱安裝 Azure PowerShell。 若要瞭解如何遷移至 Az PowerShell 模組,請參閱將 Azure PowerShell 從 AzureRM 遷移至 Az。

使用 Azure Cloud Shell

Azure Cloud Shell 是裝載於 Azure 中的互動式殼層環境,可在瀏覽器中使用。 您可以使用 Bash 或 PowerShell 搭配 Cloud Shell,與 Azure 服務共同使用。 您可以使用 Cloud Shell 預先安裝的命令,執行本文提到的程式碼,而不必在本機環境上安裝任何工具。

要啟動 Azure Cloud Shell:

選項 範例/連結
選取程式碼區塊右上角的 [試試看]。 選取 [試用] 並不會自動將程式碼複製到 Cloud Shell 中。 Azure Cloud Shell 的「試試看」範例螢幕擷取畫面。
請前往 https://shell.azure.com,或選取 [啟動 Cloud Shell] 按鈕,在瀏覽器中開啟 Cloud Shell。 顯示如何在新視窗中啟動 Cloud Shell 的螢幕擷取畫面。
選取 Azure 入口網站右上方功能表列上的 [Cloud Shell] 按鈕。 顯示 Azure 入口網站中 Cloud Shell 按鈕的螢幕擷取畫面

若要在 Azure Cloud Shell 中執行本文中的程式碼:

  1. 啟動 Cloud Shell。

  2. 選取程式碼區塊上的 [複製] 按鈕,複製程式碼。

  3. 透過在 Windows 和 Linux 上選取 Ctrl+Shift+V;或在 macOS 上選取 Cmd+Shift+V,將程式碼貼到 Cloud Shell 工作階段中。

  4. 選取 Enter 鍵執行程式碼。

如果選擇在本機安裝並使用 PowerShell,此教學課程需要 Az PowerShell 1.4.0 或更新版本。 如果您需要升級,請參閱安裝 Azure PowerShell 模組。 如果您在本機執行 PowerShell,則也需要執行 Connect-AzAccount 以建立與 Azure 的連線。

如需 SQL 資料同步的概觀,請參閱在 Azure 中使用 SQL 資料同步,跨多個雲端與內部部署資料庫同步處理資料

重要

SQL 資料同步目前不支援 Azure SQL 受控執行個體。

必要條件

  • 在 Azure SQL Database 中從 AdventureWorksLT 範例資料庫建立資料庫,以作為中樞資料庫。
  • 在與同步資料庫相同的區域中,於 Azure SQL Database 中建立資料庫。
  • 在執行範例之前更新參數預留位置。

範例

using namespace Microsoft.Azure.Commands.Sql.DataSync.Model
using namespace System.Collections.Generic

# hub database info
$subscriptionId = "<subscriptionId>"
$resourceGroupName = "<resourceGroupName>"
$serverName = "<serverName>"
$databaseName = "<databaseName>"

# sync database info
$syncDatabaseResourceGroupName = "<syncResourceGroupName>"
$syncDatabaseServerName = "<syncServerName>"
$syncDatabaseName = "<syncDatabaseName>"

# sync group info
$syncGroupName = "<syncGroupName>"
$conflictResolutionPolicy = "HubWin" # can be HubWin or MemberWin
$intervalInSeconds = 300 # sync interval in seconds (must be no less than 300)

# member database info
$syncMemberName = "<syncMemberName>"
$memberServerName = "<memberServerName>"
$memberDatabaseName = "<memberDatabaseName>"
$memberDatabaseType = "SqlServerDatabase" # can be AzureSqlDatabase or SqlServerDatabase
$syncDirection = "Bidirectional" # can be Bidirectional, Onewaymembertohub, Onewayhubtomember

# sync agent info
$syncAgentName = "<agentName>"
$syncAgentResourceGroupName = "<syncAgentResourceGroupName>"
$syncAgentServerName = "<syncAgentServerName>"

$syncMemberResourceId = "/subscriptions/$subscriptionId/resourceGroups/$resourceGroupName/providers/Microsoft.Sql/servers/$serverName/databases/$syncMemberDBName"

# temp file to save the sync schema
$tempFile = $env:TEMP+"\syncSchema.json"

# list of included columns and tables in quoted name
$includedColumnsAndTables =  "[SalesLT].[Address].[AddressID]",
                             "[SalesLT].[Address].[AddressLine2]",
                             "[SalesLT].[Address].[rowguid]",
                             "[SalesLT].[Address].[PostalCode]",
                             "[SalesLT].[ProductDescription]"
$metadataList = [System.Collections.ArrayList]::new($includedColumnsAndTables)

Connect-AzAccount
Select-AzSubscription -SubscriptionId $subscriptionId

# use if it's safe to show password in script, otherwise use PromptForCredential
# $user = "username"
# $password = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "password" -AsPlainText -Force
# $credential = New-Object -TypeName "System.Management.Automation.PSCredential" -ArgumentList $user, $password

$credential = $Host.ui.PromptForCredential("Need credential",
              "Please enter your user name and password for server "+$serverName+".database.windows.net",
              "",
              "")

# create a new sync group (if you use private link, make sure to manually approve it)
Write-Host "Creating Sync Group "$syncGroupName"..."
New-AzSqlSyncGroup -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -Name $syncGroupName `
    -SyncDatabaseName $syncDatabaseName -SyncDatabaseServerName $syncDatabaseServerName -SyncDatabaseResourceGroupName $syncDatabaseResourceGroupName `
    -ConflictResolutionPolicy $conflictResolutionPolicy -DatabaseCredential $credential -UsePrivateLinkConnection | Format-list

# use if it's safe to show password in script, otherwise use PromptForCredential
# $user = "username"
# $password = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "password" -AsPlainText -Force
# $credential = New-Object -TypeName "System.Management.Automation.PSCredential" -ArgumentList $user, $password

$credential = $Host.ui.PromptForCredential("Need credential",
              "Please enter your user name and password for server "+$serverName+".database.windows.net",
              "",
              "")

# add a new sync member (if you use private link, make sure to manually approve it)
Write-Host "Adding member"$syncMemberName" to the sync group..."
New-AzSqlSyncMember -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName `
    -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -Name $syncMemberName -MemberDatabaseType $memberDatabaseType -SyncAgentResourceGroupName $syncAgentResourceGroupName `
    -SyncAgentServerName $syncAgentServerName -SyncAgentName $syncAgentName  -SyncDirection $syncDirection -SqlServerDatabaseID  $syncAgentInfo.DatabaseId `
    -SyncMemberAzureDatabaseResourceId $syncMemberResourceId -UsePrivateLinkConnection | Format-list

# update existing sync member to use private link connection 
Update-AzSqlSyncMember `
    -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -Name $syncMemberName `
    -MemberDatabaseCredential $memberDatabaseCredential -SyncMemberAzureDatabaseResourceId $syncMemberResourceId -UsePrivateLinkConnection $true
    
# update existing sync group and remove private link connection
Update-AzSqlSyncGroup `
    -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -Name $syncGroupName -UsePrivateLinkConnection $false

# run the following Get-AzSqlSyncGroup/ Get-AzSqlSyncMember commands to confirm that a private link has been setup for Data Sync, if you decide to use private link. 
# Get-AzSqlSyncMember returns information about one or more Azure SQL Database Sync Members. Specify the name of a sync member to see information for only that sync member.
Get-AzSqlSyncMember `
    -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -Name $syncMemberName ` | Format-List
# Get-AzSqlSyncGroup returns information about one or more Azure SQL Database Sync Groups. Specify the name of a sync group to see information for only that sync group.
Get-AzSqlSyncGroup `
    -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName ` | Format-List
    
# approve private endpoint connection, if you decide to use private link
Approve-AzPrivateEndpointConnection `
    -Name myPrivateEndpointConnection -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroup -ServiceName myPrivateLinkService

# refresh database schema from hub database, specify the -SyncMemberName parameter if you want to refresh schema from the member database
Write-Host "Refreshing database schema from hub database..."
$startTime = Get-Date
Update-AzSqlSyncSchema -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName

# waiting for successful refresh
$startTime = $startTime.ToUniversalTime()
$timer=0
$timeout=90

# check the log and see if refresh has gone through
Write-Host "Check for successful refresh..."
$isSucceeded = $false
while ($isSucceeded -eq $false) {
    Start-Sleep -s 10
    $timer=$timer+10
    $details = Get-AzSqlSyncSchema -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName
    if ($details.LastUpdateTime -gt $startTime) {
        Write-Host "Refresh was successful"
        $isSucceeded = $true
    }
    if ($timer -eq $timeout) {
        Write-Host "Refresh timed out"
        break;
    }
}

# get the database schema
Write-Host "Adding tables and columns to the sync schema..."
$databaseSchema = Get-AzSqlSyncSchema -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName -ServerName $ServerName `
    -DatabaseName $DatabaseName -SyncGroupName $SyncGroupName `

$databaseSchema | ConvertTo-Json -depth 5 -Compress | Out-File "C:\Users\OnPremiseServer\AppData\Local\Temp\syncSchema.json"

$newSchema = [AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaModel]::new()
$newSchema.Tables = [List[AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaTableModel]]::new();

# add columns and tables to the sync schema
foreach ($tableSchema in $databaseSchema.Tables) {
    $newTableSchema = [AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaTableModel]::new()
    $newTableSchema.QuotedName = $tableSchema.QuotedName
    $newTableSchema.Columns = [List[AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaColumnModel]]::new();
    $addAllColumns = $false
    if ($MetadataList.Contains($tableSchema.QuotedName)) {
        if ($tableSchema.HasError) {
            $fullTableName = $tableSchema.QuotedName
            Write-Host "Can't add table $fullTableName to the sync schema" -foregroundcolor "Red"
            Write-Host $tableSchema.ErrorId -foregroundcolor "Red"
            continue;
        }
        else {
            $addAllColumns = $true
        }
    }
    foreach($columnSchema in $tableSchema.Columns) {
        $fullColumnName = $tableSchema.QuotedName + "." + $columnSchema.QuotedName
        if ($addAllColumns -or $MetadataList.Contains($fullColumnName)) {
            if ((-not $addAllColumns) -and $tableSchema.HasError) {
                Write-Host "Can't add column $fullColumnName to the sync schema" -foregroundcolor "Red"
                Write-Host $tableSchema.ErrorId -foregroundcolor "Red"
            }
            elseif ((-not $addAllColumns) -and $columnSchema.HasError) {
                Write-Host "Can't add column $fullColumnName to the sync schema" -foregroundcolor "Red"
                Write-Host $columnSchema.ErrorId -foregroundcolor "Red"
            }
            else {
                Write-Host "Adding"$fullColumnName" to the sync schema"
                $newColumnSchema = [AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaColumnModel]::new()
                $newColumnSchema.QuotedName = $columnSchema.QuotedName
                $newColumnSchema.DataSize = $columnSchema.DataSize
                $newColumnSchema.DataType = $columnSchema.DataType
                $newTableSchema.Columns.Add($newColumnSchema)
            }
        }
    }
    if ($newTableSchema.Columns.Count -gt 0) {
        $newSchema.Tables.Add($newTableSchema)
    }
}

# convert sync schema to JSON format
$schemaString = $newSchema | ConvertTo-Json -depth 5 -Compress

# work around a PowerShell bug
$schemaString = $schemaString.Replace('"Tables"', '"tables"').Replace('"Columns"', '"columns"').Replace('"QuotedName"', '"quotedName"').Replace('"MasterSyncMemberName"','"masterSyncMemberName"')

# save the sync schema to a temp file
$schemaString | Out-File $tempFile

# update sync schema
Write-Host "Updating the sync schema..."
Update-AzSqlSyncGroup -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName `
    -DatabaseName $databaseName -Name $syncGroupName -Schema $tempFile

$syncLogStartTime = Get-Date

# trigger sync manually
Write-Host "Trigger sync manually..."
Start-AzSqlSyncGroupSync -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName

# check the sync log and wait until the first sync succeeded
Write-Host "Check the sync log..."
$isSucceeded = $false
for ($i = 0; ($i -lt 300) -and (-not $isSucceeded); $i = $i + 10) {
    Start-Sleep -s 10
    $syncLogEndTime = Get-Date
    $syncLogList = Get-AzSqlSyncGroupLog -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName `
        -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -StartTime $syncLogStartTime.ToUniversalTime() -EndTime $syncLogEndTime.ToUniversalTime()

    if ($synclogList.Length -gt 0) {
        foreach ($syncLog in $syncLogList) {
            if ($syncLog.Details.Contains("Sync completed successfully")) {
                Write-Host $syncLog.TimeStamp : $syncLog.Details
                $isSucceeded = $true
            }
        }
    }
}

if ($isSucceeded) {
    # enable scheduled sync
    Write-Host "Enable the scheduled sync with 300 seconds interval..."
    Update-AzSqlSyncGroup  -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName `
        -Name $syncGroupName -IntervalInSeconds $intervalInSeconds
}
else {
    # output all log if sync doesn't succeed in 300 seconds
    $syncLogEndTime = Get-Date
    $syncLogList = Get-AzSqlSyncGroupLog  -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName `
        -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -StartTime $syncLogStartTime.ToUniversalTime() -EndTime $syncLogEndTime.ToUniversalTime()

    if ($synclogList.Length -gt 0) {
        foreach ($syncLog in $syncLogList) {
            Write-Host $syncLog.TimeStamp : $syncLog.Details
        }
    }
}

清除部署

執行範例指令碼之後,您可以執行下列命令以移除資源群組及與其相關聯的所有資源。

Remove-AzResourceGroup -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName
Remove-AzResourceGroup -ResourceGroupName $SyncDatabaseResourceGroupName

指令碼說明

此指令碼會使用下列命令。 下表中的每個命令都會連結至命令特定的文件。

Command 注意
New-AzSqlSyncAgent 建立新的同步代理程式。
New-AzSqlSyncAgentKey 產生與同步代理程式相關聯的代理程式金鑰。
Get-AzSqlSyncAgentLinkedDatabase 取得同步代理程式的所有資訊。
New-AzSqlSyncMember 將新成員新增至同步群組。
Update-AzSqlSyncSchema 重新整理資料庫結構描述資訊。
Get-AzSqlSyncSchema 取得資料庫結構描述資訊。
Update-AzSqlSyncGroup 更新同步群組。
Start-AzSqlSyncGroupSync 觸發同步處理。
Get-AzSqlSyncGroupLog 檢查同步記錄。

後續步驟

如需有關 Azure PowerShell 的詳細資訊,請參閱 Azure PowerShell 文件

您可以在 Azure SQL Database PowerShell 指令碼中找到其他 SQL Database PowerShell 指令碼範例。

如需有關 SQL 資料同步的詳細資訊,請參閱:

如需有關 SQL Database 的詳細資訊,請參閱: