# 在 F# 中使用函式

let f x = x + 1


F# 的一個明確特性是函式具有第一級狀態。 您可以使用函式來執行任何可透過其他內建類型值完成的工作，難易程度大致相同。

• 您可以指定函式值的名稱。

• 您可以將函式儲存在資料結構中，例如清單中。

• 您可以在函式呼叫中將函式當做引數傳遞。

• 您可以從函式呼叫傳回函式。

## 指定值的名稱

// Integer and string.
let num = 10
let str = "F#"


let squareIt = fun n -> n * n


F# 提供下列更精簡的語法，只要鍵入更少內容就能達到相同的結果。

let squareIt2 n = n * n


## 將值儲存在資料結構中

// Lists.

// Storing integers and strings.
let integerList = [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 ]
let stringList = [ "one"; "two"; "three" ]

// You cannot mix types in a list. The following declaration causes a
// type-mismatch compiler error.
//let failedList = [ 5; "six" ]

// In F#, functions can be stored in a list, as long as the functions
// have the same signature.

// Function doubleIt has the same signature as squareIt, declared previously.
//let squareIt = fun n -> n * n
let doubleIt = fun n -> 2 * n

// Functions squareIt and doubleIt can be stored together in a list.
let funList = [ squareIt; doubleIt ]

// Function squareIt cannot be stored in a list together with a function
// that has a different signature, such as the following body mass
// index (BMI) calculator.
let BMICalculator = fun ht wt ->
(float wt / float (squareIt ht)) * 703.0

// The following expression causes a type-mismatch compiler error.
//let failedFunList = [ squareIt; BMICalculator ]

// Tuples.

// Integers and strings.
let integerTuple = ( 1, -7 )
let stringTuple = ( "one", "two", "three" )

// A tuple does not require its elements to be of the same type.
let mixedTuple = ( 1, "two", 3.3 )

// Similarly, function elements in tuples can have different signatures.
let funTuple = ( squareIt, BMICalculator )

// Functions can be mixed with integers, strings, and other types in
// a tuple. Identifier num was declared previously.
//let num = 10
let moreMixedTuple = ( num, "two", 3.3, squareIt )


// You can pull a function out of a tuple and apply it. Both squareIt and num
// were defined previously.
let funAndArgTuple = (squareIt, num)

// The following expression applies squareIt to num, returns 100, and
// then displays 100.
System.Console.WriteLine((fst funAndArgTuple)(snd funAndArgTuple))


// Make a tuple of values instead of identifiers.
let funAndArgTuple2 = ((fun n -> n * n), 10)

// The following expression applies a squaring function to 10, returns
// 100, and then displays 100.
System.Console.WriteLine((fst funAndArgTuple2)(snd funAndArgTuple2))


## 將值當做引數傳遞

// An integer is passed to squareIt. Both squareIt and num are defined in
// previous examples.
//let num = 10
//let squareIt = fun n -> n * n
System.Console.WriteLine(squareIt num)

// String.
// Function repeatString concatenates a string with itself.
let repeatString = fun s -> s + s

// A string is passed to repeatString. HelloHello is returned and displayed.
let greeting = "Hello"
System.Console.WriteLine(repeatString greeting)


// Define the function, again using lambda expression syntax.
let applyIt = fun op arg -> op arg

// Send squareIt for the function, op, and num for the argument you want to
// apply squareIt to, arg. Both squareIt and num are defined in previous
// examples. The result returned and displayed is 100.
System.Console.WriteLine(applyIt squareIt num)

// The following expression shows the concise syntax for the previous function
// definition.
let applyIt2 op arg = op arg
// The following line also displays 100.
System.Console.WriteLine(applyIt2 squareIt num)


F# 為大多數集合類型提供對應方法，包括清單陣列序列。 下列範例會使用清單。 語法是 List.map <the function> <the list>

// List integerList was defined previously:
//let integerList = [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 ]

// You can send the function argument by name, if an appropriate function
// is available. The following expression uses squareIt.
let squareAll = List.map squareIt integerList

// The following line displays [1; 4; 9; 16; 25; 36; 49]
printfn "%A" squareAll

// Or you can define the action to apply to each list element inline.
// For example, no function that tests for even integers has been defined,
// so the following expression defines the appropriate function inline.
// The function returns true if n is even; otherwise it returns false.
let evenOrNot = List.map (fun n -> n % 2 = 0) integerList

// The following line displays [false; true; false; true; false; true; false]
printfn "%A" evenOrNot


## 從函式呼叫傳回值

// Function doubleIt is defined in a previous example.
//let doubleIt = fun n -> 2 * n
System.Console.WriteLine(doubleIt 3)
System.Console.WriteLine(squareIt 4)


// str is defined in a previous section.
//let str = "F#"
let lowercase = str.ToLower()


System.Console.WriteLine((fun n -> n % 2 = 1) 15)


let checkFor item =
let functionToReturn = fun lst ->
List.exists (fun a -> a = item) lst
functionToReturn


// integerList and stringList were defined earlier.
//let integerList = [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 ]
//let stringList = [ "one"; "two"; "three" ]

// The returned function is given the name checkFor7.
let checkFor7 = checkFor 7

// The result displayed when checkFor7 is applied to integerList is True.
System.Console.WriteLine(checkFor7 integerList)

// The following code repeats the process for "seven" in stringList.
let checkForSeven = checkFor "seven"

// The result displayed is False.
System.Console.WriteLine(checkForSeven stringList)


// Function compose takes two arguments. Each argument is a function
// that takes one argument of the same type. The following declaration
// uses lambda expression syntax.
let compose =
fun op1 op2 ->
fun n ->
op1 (op2 n)

// To clarify what you are returning, use a nested let expression:
let compose2 =
fun op1 op2 ->
// Use a let expression to build the function that will be returned.
let funToReturn = fun n ->
op1 (op2 n)
// Then just return it.
funToReturn

// Or, integrating the more concise syntax:
let compose3 op1 op2 =
let funToReturn = fun n ->
op1 (op2 n)
funToReturn


// Functions squareIt and doubleIt were defined in a previous example.
let doubleAndSquare = compose squareIt doubleIt
// The following expression doubles 3, squares 6, and returns and
// displays 36.
System.Console.WriteLine(doubleAndSquare 3)

let squareAndDouble = compose doubleIt squareIt
// The following expression squares 3, doubles 9, returns 18, and
// then displays 18.
System.Console.WriteLine(squareAndDouble 3)


F# 提供用於組合函式的兩個運算子 <<>>。 例如，let squareAndDouble2 = doubleIt << squareIt 相當於上一個範例中的 let squareAndDouble = compose doubleIt squareIt

let makeGame target =
// Build a lambda expression that is the function that plays the game.
let game = fun guess ->
if guess = target then
System.Console.WriteLine("You win!")
else
System.Console.WriteLine("Wrong. Try again.")
// Now just return it.
game


let playGame = makeGame 7
// Send in some guesses.
playGame 2
playGame 9
playGame 7

// Output:
// Wrong. Try again.
// Wrong. Try again.
// You win!

// The following game specifies a character instead of an integer for target.
let alphaGame = makeGame 'q'
alphaGame 'c'
alphaGame 'r'
alphaGame 'j'
alphaGame 'q'

// Output:
// Wrong. Try again.
// Wrong. Try again.
// Wrong. Try again.
// You win!


## 局部調用函式

let compose4 op1 op2 n = op1 (op2 n)


let compose4curried =
fun op1 ->
fun op2 ->
fun n -> op1 (op2 n)


// Access one layer at a time.
System.Console.WriteLine(((compose4 doubleIt) squareIt) 3)

// Access as in the original compose examples, sending arguments for
// op1 and op2, then applying the resulting function to a value.
System.Console.WriteLine((compose4 doubleIt squareIt) 3)

// Access by sending all three arguments at the same time.
System.Console.WriteLine(compose4 doubleIt squareIt 3)


let doubleAndSquare4 = compose4 squareIt doubleIt
// The following expression returns and displays 36.
System.Console.WriteLine(doubleAndSquare4 3)

let squareAndDouble4 = compose4 doubleIt squareIt
// The following expression returns and displays 18.
System.Console.WriteLine(squareAndDouble4 3)


let makeGame2 target guess =
if guess = target then
System.Console.WriteLine("You win!")
else
System.Console.WriteLine("Wrong. Try again.")

let playGame2 = makeGame2 7
playGame2 2
playGame2 9
playGame2 7

let alphaGame2 = makeGame2 'q'
alphaGame2 'c'
alphaGame2 'r'
alphaGame2 'j'
alphaGame2 'q'


## 識別項和函式定義可互換

let isNegative = fun n -> n < 0

// This example uses the names of the function argument and the integer
// argument. Identifier num is defined in a previous example.
//let num = 10
System.Console.WriteLine(applyIt isNegative num)

// This example substitutes the value that num is bound to for num, and the
// value that isNegative is bound to for isNegative.
System.Console.WriteLine(applyIt (fun n -> n < 0) 10)


System.Console.WriteLine((fun op arg -> op arg) (fun n -> n < 0)  10)


## 函式在 F# 中是第一級值

• 您可以將識別項繫結至函式定義。
let squareIt = fun n -> n * n

• 您可以將函式儲存在資料結構中。
let funTuple2 = ( BMICalculator, fun n -> n * n )

• 您可以將函式當做引數傳遞。
let increments = List.map (fun n -> n + 1) [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 ]

• 您可以傳回函式作為函式呼叫的值。
let checkFor item =
let functionToReturn = fun lst ->
List.exists (fun a -> a = item) lst
functionToReturn


## 範例

### 程式碼

// ** GIVE THE VALUE A NAME **

// Integer and string.
let num = 10
let str = "F#"

let squareIt = fun n -> n * n

let squareIt2 n = n * n

// ** STORE THE VALUE IN A DATA STRUCTURE **

// Lists.

// Storing integers and strings.
let integerList = [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 ]
let stringList = [ "one"; "two"; "three" ]

// You cannot mix types in a list. The following declaration causes a
// type-mismatch compiler error.
//let failedList = [ 5; "six" ]

// In F#, functions can be stored in a list, as long as the functions
// have the same signature.

// Function doubleIt has the same signature as squareIt, declared previously.
//let squareIt = fun n -> n * n
let doubleIt = fun n -> 2 * n

// Functions squareIt and doubleIt can be stored together in a list.
let funList = [ squareIt; doubleIt ]

// Function squareIt cannot be stored in a list together with a function
// that has a different signature, such as the following body mass
// index (BMI) calculator.
let BMICalculator = fun ht wt ->
(float wt / float (squareIt ht)) * 703.0

// The following expression causes a type-mismatch compiler error.
//let failedFunList = [ squareIt; BMICalculator ]

// Tuples.

// Integers and strings.
let integerTuple = ( 1, -7 )
let stringTuple = ( "one", "two", "three" )

// A tuple does not require its elements to be of the same type.
let mixedTuple = ( 1, "two", 3.3 )

// Similarly, function elements in tuples can have different signatures.
let funTuple = ( squareIt, BMICalculator )

// Functions can be mixed with integers, strings, and other types in
// a tuple. Identifier num was declared previously.
//let num = 10
let moreMixedTuple = ( num, "two", 3.3, squareIt )

// You can pull a function out of a tuple and apply it. Both squareIt and num
// were defined previously.
let funAndArgTuple = (squareIt, num)

// The following expression applies squareIt to num, returns 100, and
// then displays 100.
System.Console.WriteLine((fst funAndArgTuple)(snd funAndArgTuple))

// Make a list of values instead of identifiers.
let funAndArgTuple2 = ((fun n -> n * n), 10)

// The following expression applies a squaring function to 10, returns
// 100, and then displays 100.
System.Console.WriteLine((fst funAndArgTuple2)(snd funAndArgTuple2))

// ** PASS THE VALUE AS AN ARGUMENT **

// An integer is passed to squareIt. Both squareIt and num are defined in
// previous examples.
//let num = 10
//let squareIt = fun n -> n * n
System.Console.WriteLine(squareIt num)

// String.
// Function repeatString concatenates a string with itself.
let repeatString = fun s -> s + s

// A string is passed to repeatString. HelloHello is returned and displayed.
let greeting = "Hello"
System.Console.WriteLine(repeatString greeting)

// Define the function, again using lambda expression syntax.
let applyIt = fun op arg -> op arg

// Send squareIt for the function, op, and num for the argument you want to
// apply squareIt to, arg. Both squareIt and num are defined in previous
// examples. The result returned and displayed is 100.
System.Console.WriteLine(applyIt squareIt num)

// The following expression shows the concise syntax for the previous function
// definition.
let applyIt2 op arg = op arg
// The following line also displays 100.
System.Console.WriteLine(applyIt2 squareIt num)

// List integerList was defined previously:
//let integerList = [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 ]

// You can send the function argument by name, if an appropriate function
// is available. The following expression uses squareIt.
let squareAll = List.map squareIt integerList

// The following line displays [1; 4; 9; 16; 25; 36; 49]
printfn "%A" squareAll

// Or you can define the action to apply to each list element inline.
// For example, no function that tests for even integers has been defined,
// so the following expression defines the appropriate function inline.
// The function returns true if n is even; otherwise it returns false.
let evenOrNot = List.map (fun n -> n % 2 = 0) integerList

// The following line displays [false; true; false; true; false; true; false]
printfn "%A" evenOrNot

// ** RETURN THE VALUE FROM A FUNCTION CALL **

// Function doubleIt is defined in a previous example.
//let doubleIt = fun n -> 2 * n
System.Console.WriteLine(doubleIt 3)
System.Console.WriteLine(squareIt 4)

// The following function call returns a string:

// str is defined in a previous section.
//let str = "F#"
let lowercase = str.ToLower()

System.Console.WriteLine((fun n -> n % 2 = 1) 15)

let checkFor item =
let functionToReturn = fun lst ->
List.exists (fun a -> a = item) lst
functionToReturn

// integerList and stringList were defined earlier.
//let integerList = [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 ]
//let stringList = [ "one"; "two"; "three" ]

// The returned function is given the name checkFor7.
let checkFor7 = checkFor 7

// The result displayed when checkFor7 is applied to integerList is True.
System.Console.WriteLine(checkFor7 integerList)

// The following code repeats the process for "seven" in stringList.
let checkForSeven = checkFor "seven"

// The result displayed is False.
System.Console.WriteLine(checkForSeven stringList)

// Function compose takes two arguments. Each argument is a function
// that takes one argument of the same type. The following declaration
// uses lambda expression syntax.
let compose =
fun op1 op2 ->
fun n ->
op1 (op2 n)

// To clarify what you are returning, use a nested let expression:
let compose2 =
fun op1 op2 ->
// Use a let expression to build the function that will be returned.
let funToReturn = fun n ->
op1 (op2 n)
// Then just return it.
funToReturn

// Or, integrating the more concise syntax:
let compose3 op1 op2 =
let funToReturn = fun n ->
op1 (op2 n)
funToReturn

// Functions squareIt and doubleIt were defined in a previous example.
let doubleAndSquare = compose squareIt doubleIt
// The following expression doubles 3, squares 6, and returns and
// displays 36.
System.Console.WriteLine(doubleAndSquare 3)

let squareAndDouble = compose doubleIt squareIt
// The following expression squares 3, doubles 9, returns 18, and
// then displays 18.
System.Console.WriteLine(squareAndDouble 3)

let makeGame target =
// Build a lambda expression that is the function that plays the game.
let game = fun guess ->
if guess = target then
System.Console.WriteLine("You win!")
else
System.Console.WriteLine("Wrong. Try again.")
// Now just return it.
game

let playGame = makeGame 7
// Send in some guesses.
playGame 2
playGame 9
playGame 7

// Output:
// Wrong. Try again.
// Wrong. Try again.
// You win!

// The following game specifies a character instead of an integer for target.
let alphaGame = makeGame 'q'
alphaGame 'c'
alphaGame 'r'
alphaGame 'j'
alphaGame 'q'

// Output:
// Wrong. Try again.
// Wrong. Try again.
// Wrong. Try again.
// You win!

// ** CURRIED FUNCTIONS **

let compose4 op1 op2 n = op1 (op2 n)

let compose4curried =
fun op1 ->
fun op2 ->
fun n -> op1 (op2 n)

// Access one layer at a time.
System.Console.WriteLine(((compose4 doubleIt) squareIt) 3)

// Access as in the original compose examples, sending arguments for
// op1 and op2, then applying the resulting function to a value.
System.Console.WriteLine((compose4 doubleIt squareIt) 3)

// Access by sending all three arguments at the same time.
System.Console.WriteLine(compose4 doubleIt squareIt 3)

let doubleAndSquare4 = compose4 squareIt doubleIt
// The following expression returns and displays 36.
System.Console.WriteLine(doubleAndSquare4 3)

let squareAndDouble4 = compose4 doubleIt squareIt
// The following expression returns and displays 18.
System.Console.WriteLine(squareAndDouble4 3)

let makeGame2 target guess =
if guess = target then
System.Console.WriteLine("You win!")
else
System.Console.WriteLine("Wrong. Try again.")

let playGame2 = makeGame2 7
playGame2 2
playGame2 9
playGame2 7

let alphaGame2 = makeGame2 'q'
alphaGame2 'c'
alphaGame2 'r'
alphaGame2 'j'
alphaGame2 'q'

// ** IDENTIFIER AND FUNCTION DEFINITION ARE INTERCHANGEABLE **

let isNegative = fun n -> n < 0

// This example uses the names of the function argument and the integer
// argument. Identifier num is defined in a previous example.
//let num = 10
System.Console.WriteLine(applyIt isNegative num)

// This example substitutes the value that num is bound to for num, and the
// value that isNegative is bound to for isNegative.
System.Console.WriteLine(applyIt (fun n -> n < 0) 10)

System.Console.WriteLine((fun op arg -> op arg) (fun n -> n < 0)  10)

// ** FUNCTIONS ARE FIRST-CLASS VALUES IN F# **

//let squareIt = fun n -> n * n

let funTuple2 = ( BMICalculator, fun n -> n * n )

let increments = List.map (fun n -> n + 1) [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 ]

//let checkFor item =
//    let functionToReturn = fun lst ->
//                           List.exists (fun a -> a = item) lst
//    functionToReturn