Hyperscale service tier
Applies to: Azure SQL Database
Azure SQL Database is based on SQL Server Database Engine architecture that is adjusted for the cloud environment to ensure high availability even in cases of infrastructure failures. There are three architectural models that are used in Azure SQL Database:
- General Purpose/Standard
- Business Critical/Premium
The Hyperscale service tier in Azure SQL Database is the newest service tier in the vCore-based purchasing model. This service tier is a highly scalable storage and compute performance tier that uses the Azure architecture to scale out the storage and compute resources for an Azure SQL Database substantially beyond the limits available for the General Purpose and Business Critical service tiers.
- For details on the General Purpose and Business Critical service tiers in the vCore-based purchasing model, see General Purpose and Business Critical service tiers. For a comparison of the vCore-based purchasing model with the DTU-based purchasing model, see Azure SQL Database purchasing models and resources.
- The Hyperscale service tier is currently only available for Azure SQL Database, and not Azure SQL Managed Instance.
What are the Hyperscale capabilities
The Hyperscale service tier in Azure SQL Database provides the following additional capabilities:
- Support for up to 100 TB of database size.
- Fast database backups (based on file snapshots stored in Azure Blob storage) regardless of size with no IO impact on compute resources.
- Fast database restores (based on file snapshots) in minutes rather than hours or days (not a size of data operation).
- Higher overall performance due to higher transaction log throughput and faster transaction commit times regardless of data volumes.
- Rapid scale out - you can provision one or more read-only replicas for offloading your read workload and for use as hot-standbys.
- Rapid Scale up - you can, in constant time, scale up your compute resources to accommodate heavy workloads when needed, and then scale the compute resources back down when not needed.
The Hyperscale service tier removes many of the practical limits traditionally seen in cloud databases. Where most other databases are limited by the resources available in a single node, databases in the Hyperscale service tier have no such limits. With its flexible storage architecture, storage grows as needed. In fact, Hyperscale databases aren't created with a defined max size. A Hyperscale database grows as needed - and you're billed only for the capacity you use. For read-intensive workloads, the Hyperscale service tier provides rapid scale-out by provisioning additional replicas as needed for offloading read workloads.
Additionally, the time required to create database backups or to scale up or down is no longer tied to the volume of data in the database. Hyperscale databases can be backed up virtually instantaneously. You can also scale a database in the tens of terabytes up or down in minutes. This capability frees you from concerns about being boxed in by your initial configuration choices.
For more information about the compute sizes for the Hyperscale service tier, see Service tier characteristics.
Who should consider the Hyperscale service tier
The Hyperscale service tier is intended for all customers who require higher performance and availability, fast backup and restore, and/or fast storage and compute scalability. This includes customers who are moving to the cloud to modernize their applications as well as customers who are already using other service tiers in Azure SQL Database. The Hyperscale service tier supports a broad range of database workloads, from pure OLTP to pure analytics. It is optimized for OLTP and hybrid transaction and analytical processing (HTAP) workloads.
Elastic pools do not support the Hyperscale service tier.
Hyperscale pricing model
Hyperscale service tier is only available in vCore model. To align with the new architecture, the pricing model is slightly different from General Purpose or Business Critical service tiers:
The Hyperscale compute unit price is per replica. The Azure Hybrid Benefit price is applied to high-availabilty and named replicas automatically. Users may adjust the total number of high-availability secondary replicas from 0 to 4, depending on availability and scalability requirements, and create up to 30 named replicas to support a variety of read scale-out workloads.
You don't need to specify the max data size when configuring a Hyperscale database. In the Hyperscale tier, you're charged for storage for your database based on actual allocation. Storage is automatically allocated between 10 GB and 100 TB and grows in 10-GB increments as needed.
For more information about Hyperscale pricing, see Azure SQL Database Pricing
Compare resource limits
The vCore-based service tiers are differentiated based on database availability and storage type, performance, and maximum storage size, as described in the following table:
|ㅤ||General Purpose||Hyperscale||Business Critical|
|Best for||Offers budget oriented balanced compute and storage options.||Most business workloads. Autoscaling storage size up to 100 TB, fast vertical and horizontal compute scaling, fast database restore.||OLTP applications with high transaction rate and low IO latency. Offers highest resilience to failures and fast failovers using multiple synchronously updated replicas.|
|Compute size||2 to 128 vCores||2 to 128 vCores1||2 to 128 vCores|
|Storage type||Premium remote storage (per instance)||De-coupled storage with local SSD cache (per instance)||Super-fast local SSD storage (per instance)|
|Storage size1||5 GB – 4 TB||Up to 100 TB||5 GB – 4 TB|
|IOPS||500 IOPS per vCore with 7,000 maximum IOPS||Hyperscale is a multi-tiered architecture with caching at multiple levels. Effective IOPS will depend on the workload.||5,000 IOPS with 200,000 maximum IOPS|
|Availability||1 replica, no Read Scale-out, zone-redundant HA, no local cache||Multiple replicas, up to 4 Read Scale-out, zone-redundant HA, partial local cache||3 replicas, 1 Read Scale-out, zone-redundant HA, full local storage|
|Backups||A choice of geo-redundant, zone-redundant, or locally redundant backup storage, 1-35 day retention (default 7 days)||A choice of geo-redundant, zone-redundant, or locally redundant backup storage, 1-35 day retention (default 7 days)||A choice of geo-redundant, zone-redundant, or locally redundant backup storage, 1-35 day retention (default 7 days)|
1 Elastic pools aren't supported in the Hyperscale service tier.
Short-term backup retention for 1-35 days for Hyperscale databases is now in preview.
|Gen4||- Intel® E5-2673 v3 (Haswell) 2.4-GHz processors
- Provision up to 24 vCores (physical)
|- 7 GB per vCore
- Provision up to 168 GB
|Standard-series (Gen5)||Provisioned compute
- Intel® E5-2673 v4 (Broadwell) 2.3 GHz, Intel® SP-8160 (Skylake)*, Intel® 8272CL (Cascade Lake) 2.5 GHz*, Intel® Xeon Platinum 8307C (Ice Lake)*, AMD EPYC 7763v (Milan) processors
- Provision up to 128 vCores (hyper-threaded)
- Intel® E5-2673 v4 (Broadwell) 2.3 GHz, Intel® SP-8160 (Skylake)*, Intel® 8272CL (Cascade Lake) 2.5 GHz*, Intel Xeon® Platinum 8307C (Ice Lake)*, AMD EPYC 7763v (Milan) processors
- Auto-scale up to 40 vCores (hyper-threaded)
- 5.1 GB per vCore
- Provision up to 625 GB
- Auto-scale up to 24 GB per vCore
- Auto-scale up to 120 GB max
|Premium-series (preview)||- Intel® Xeon Platinum 8307C (Ice Lake), AMD EPYC 7763v (Milan) processors||- 5.1 GB per vCore
- Provision up to 128 vCores (hyper-threaded)
|Premium-series memory optimized (preview)||- Intel® Xeon Platinum 8307C (Ice Lake), AMD EPYC 7763v (Milan) processors||- 10.2 GB per vCore
- Provision up to 80 vCores (hyper-threaded)
* In the sys.dm_user_db_resource_governance dynamic management view, hardware generation for databases using Intel® SP-8160 (Skylake) processors appears as Gen6, hardware generation for databases using Intel® 8272CL (Cascade Lake) appears as Gen7, and hardware generation for databases using Intel Xeon® Platinum 8307C (Ice Lake) or AMD® EPYC® 7763v (Milan) appear as Gen8. For a given compute size and hardware configuration, resource limits are the same regardless of CPU type. For more information, see resource limits for single databases and elastic pools.
Gen4 hardware is being retired and is not available for new deployments, as announced on December 18, 2019. Customers using Gen4 for Azure SQL Databases, elastic pools, or SQL managed instances should migrate to currently available hardware, such as standard-series (Gen5), before January 31, 2023.
For more information on Gen4 hardware retirement and migration to current hardware, see our Blog post on Gen4 retirement. Existing Gen4 databases, elastic pools, and SQL managed instances will be migrated automatically to equivalent standard-series (Gen5) hardware.
Downtime caused by automatic migration will be minimal and similar to downtime during scaling operations within selected service tier. To avoid unplanned interruptions to workloads, migrate proactively at the time of your choice before January 31, 2023.
Distributed functions architecture
Hyperscale separates the query processing engine from the components that provide long-term storage and durability for the data. This architecture provides the ability to smoothly scale storage capacity as far as needed (initial target is 100 TB), and the ability to scale compute resources rapidly.
The following diagram illustrates the functional Hyperscale architecture:
Learn more about the Hyperscale distributed functions architecture.
Scale and performance advantages
With the ability to rapidly spin up/down additional read-only compute nodes, the Hyperscale architecture allows significant read scale capabilities and can also free up the primary compute node for serving more write requests. Also, the compute nodes can be scaled up/down rapidly due to the shared-storage architecture of the Hyperscale architecture.
Create and manage Hyperscale databases
You can create and manage Hyperscale databases using the Azure portal, Transact-SQL, PowerShell and the Azure CLI. Refer Quickstart: Create a Hyperscale database.
|Create a Hyperscale database||Hyperscale databases are available only using the vCore-based purchasing model.||Find examples to create a Hyperscale database in Quickstart: Create a Hyperscale database in Azure SQL Database.|
|Upgrade an existing database to Hyperscale||Migrating an existing database in Azure SQL Database to the Hyperscale tier is a size of data operation.||Learn how to migrate an existing database to Hyperscale.|
|Reverse migrate a Hyperscale database to the General Purpose service tier||If you previously migrated an existing Azure SQL Database to the Hyperscale service tier, you can reverse migrate the database to the General Purpose service tier within 45 days of the original migration to Hyperscale.
If you wish to migrate the database to another service tier, such as Business Critical, first reverse migrate to the General Purpose service tier, then change the service tier.
|Learn how to reverse migrate from Hyperscale, including the limitations for reverse migration.|
Database high availability in Hyperscale
As in all other service tiers, Hyperscale guarantees data durability for committed transactions regardless of compute replica availability. The extent of downtime due to the primary replica becoming unavailable depends on the type of failover (planned vs. unplanned), whether zone redundancy is configured, and on the presence of at least one high-availability replica. In a planned failover (i.e. a maintenance event), the system either creates the new primary replica before initiating a failover, or uses an existing high-availability replica as the failover target. In an unplanned failover (i.e. a hardware failure on the primary replica), the system uses a high-availability replica as a failover target if one exists, or creates a new primary replica from the pool of available compute capacity. In the latter case, downtime duration is longer due to extra steps required to create the new primary replica.
For Hyperscale SLA, see SLA for Azure SQL Database.
Back up and restore
Back up and restore operations for Hyperscale databases are file-snapshot based. This enables these operations to be nearly instantaneous. Since Hyperscale architecture utilizes the storage layer for backup and restore, processing burden and performance impact to compute replicas are significantly reduced. Learn more in Hyperscale backups and storage redundancy.
Disaster recovery for Hyperscale databases
If you need to restore a Hyperscale database in Azure SQL Database to a region other than the one it's currently hosted in, as part of a disaster recovery operation or drill, relocation, or any other reason, the primary method is to do a geo-restore of the database. Geo-restore is only available when geo-redundant storage (RA-GRS) has been chosen for storage redundancy.
Learn more in restoring a Hyperscale database to a different region.
These are the current limitations of the Hyperscale service tier. We're actively working to remove as many of these limitations as possible.
|Short-term backup retention||Short-term backup retention for 1-35 days for Hyperscale databases is now in preview. A non-Hyperscale database can't be restored as a Hyperscale database, and a Hyperscale database can't be restored as a non-Hyperscale database.
For databases migrated to Hyperscale from other Azure SQL Database service tiers, pre-migration backups are kept for the duration of backup retention period of the source database, including long-term retention policies. Restoring a pre-migration backup within the backup retention period of the database is supported via the command line. You can restore these backups to any non-Hyperscale service tier.
|Long-term backup retention||Long-term backup retention for Hyperscale databases is now in preview.|
|Service tier change from Hyperscale to General Purpose tier is supported directly under limited scenarios||Reverse migration from Hyperscale allows customers who have recently migrated an existing Azure SQL Database to the Hyperscale service tier to move to General Purpose tier, should Hyperscale not meet their needs. While reverse migration is initiated by a service tier change, it's essentially a size-of-data move between different architectures. Databases created in the Hyperscale service tier aren't eligible for reverse migration. Learn the limitations for reverse migration.
For databases that don't qualify for reverse migration, the only way to migrate from Hyperscale to a non-Hyperscale service tier is to export/import using a bacpac file or other data movement technologies (Bulk Copy, Azure Data Factory, Azure Databricks, SSIS, etc.) Bacpac export/import from Azure portal, from PowerShell using New-AzSqlDatabaseExport or New-AzSqlDatabaseImport, from Azure CLI using az sql db export and az sql db import, and from REST API isn't supported. Bacpac import/export for smaller Hyperscale databases (up to 200 GB) is supported using SSMS and SqlPackage version 18.4 and later. For larger databases, bacpac export/import may take a long time, and may fail for various reasons.
|Elastic Pools||Elastic Pools aren't currently supported with Hyperscale.|
|Migration of databases with In-Memory OLTP objects||Hyperscale supports a subset of In-Memory OLTP objects, including memory optimized table types, table variables, and natively compiled modules. However, when any In-Memory OLTP objects are present in the database being migrated, migration from Premium and Business Critical service tiers to Hyperscale isn't supported. To migrate such a database to Hyperscale, all In-Memory OLTP objects and their dependencies must be dropped. After the database is migrated, these objects can be recreated. Durable and non-durable memory optimized tables aren't currently supported in Hyperscale, and must be changed to disk tables.|
|Shrink Database||DBCC SHRINKDATABASE, DBCC SHRINKFILE or setting AUTO_SHRINK to ON at the database level, are not currently supported for Hyperscale databases.|
|Database integrity check||DBCC CHECKDB isn't currently supported for Hyperscale databases. DBCC CHECKTABLE ('TableName') WITH TABLOCK and DBCC CHECKFILEGROUP WITH TABLOCK may be used as a workaround. See Data Integrity in Azure SQL Database for details on data integrity management in Azure SQL Database.|
|Elastic Jobs||Using a Hyperscale database as the Job database isn't supported. However, elastic jobs can target Hyperscale databases in the same way as any other database in Azure SQL Database.|
|Data Sync||Using a Hyperscale database as a Hub or Sync Metadata database isn't supported. However, a Hyperscale database can be a member database in a Data Sync topology.|
|Hyperscale service tier premium-series hardware (preview)||Zone redundancy is currently not supported for premium-series and memory optimized premium-series hardware.|
|Hyperscale service tier premium-series hardware (preview)||Azure SQL Database maintenance window is currently not supported for premium-series and memory optimized premium-series.|
Learn more about Hyperscale in Azure SQL Database in the following articles:
- For an FAQ on Hyperscale, see Frequently asked questions about Hyperscale.
- For information about service tiers, see Service tiers.
- See Overview of resource limits on a server for information about limits at the server and subscription levels.
- For purchasing model limits for a single database, see Azure SQL Database vCore-based purchasing model limits for a single database.
- For a features and comparison list, see SQL common features.
- Learn about the Hyperscale distributed functions architecture.
- Learn How to manage a Hyperscale database.