Migrate Tomcat applications to Azure Container Apps

This guide describes what you should be aware of when you want to migrate an existing Tomcat application to run on Azure Container Apps (ACA).


To ensure a successful migration, before you start, complete the assessment and inventory steps described in the following sections.

Inventory external resources

External resources, such as data sources, JMS message brokers, and others are injected via Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). Some such resources may require migration or reconfiguration.

Inside your application

Inspect the META-INF/context.xml file. Look for <Resource> elements inside the <Context> element.

On the application server(s)

Inspect the $CATALINA_BASE/conf/context.xml and $CATALINA_BASE/conf/server.xml files as well as the .xml files found in $CATALINA_BASE/conf/[engine-name]/[host-name] directories.

In context.xml files, JNDI resources will be described by the <Resource> elements inside the top-level <Context> element.

In server.xml files, JNDI resources will be described by the <Resource> elements inside the <GlobalNamingResources> element.


Datasources are JNDI resources with the type attribute set to javax.sql.DataSource. For each datasource, document the following information:

  • What is the datasource name?
  • What is the connection pool configuration?
  • Where can I find the JDBC driver JAR file?

For more information, see JNDI Datasource HOW-TO in the Tomcat documentation.

All other external resources

It isn't feasible to document every possible external dependency in this guide. It's your team's responsibility to verify that you can satisfy every external dependency of your application after the migration.

Inventory secrets

Passwords and secure strings

Check all properties and configuration files on the production server(s) for any secret strings and passwords. Be sure to check server.xml and context.xml in $CATALINA_BASE/conf. You may also find configuration files containing passwords or credentials inside your application. These may include META-INF/context.xml, and, for Spring Boot applications, application.properties or application.yml files.

Determine whether and how the file system is used

Any usage of the file system on the application server will require reconfiguration or, in rare cases, architectural changes. You may identify some or all of the following scenarios.

Read-only static content

If your application currently serves static content, you'll need an alternate location for it. You may wish to consider moving static content to Azure Blob Storage and adding Azure CDN for lightning-fast downloads globally. For more information, see Static website hosting in Azure Storage and Quickstart: Integrate an Azure storage account with Azure CDN.

Dynamically published static content

If your application allows for static content that is uploaded/produced by your application but is immutable after its creation, you can use Azure Blob Storage and Azure CDN as described above, with an Azure Function to handle uploads and CDN refresh. We've provided a sample implementation for your use at Uploading and CDN-preloading static content with Azure Functions.

Identify session persistence mechanism

To identify the session persistence manager in use, inspect the context.xml files in your application and Tomcat configuration. Look for the <Manager> element, and then note the value of the className attribute.

Tomcat's built-in PersistentManager implementations, such as StandardManager or FileStore aren't designed for use with a distributed, scaled platform such as ACA. ACA may load balance among several instances and transparently restart any instance at any time, so persisting mutable state to a file system isn't recommended.

If session persistence is required, you'll need to use an alternate PersistentManager implementation that will write to an external data store, such as VMware Tanzu Session Manager with Redis Cache.

Special cases

Certain production scenarios may require more changes or impose more limitations. While such scenarios can be infrequent, it's important to ensure that they're either inapplicable to your application or correctly resolved.

Determine whether application relies on scheduled jobs

Scheduled jobs, such as Quartz Scheduler tasks or cron jobs, can't be used with containerized Tomcat deployments. If your application is scaled out, one scheduled job may run more than once per scheduled period. This situation can lead to unintended consequences.

Inventory any scheduled jobs, inside or outside the application server.

Determine whether your application contains OS-specific code

If your application contains any code with dependencies on the host OS, then you'll need to refactor it to remove those dependencies. For example, you may need to replace any use of / or \ in file system paths with File.Separator or Paths.get.

Determine whether MemoryRealm is used

MemoryRealm requires a persisted XML file. On ACA, you'll need to add this file to the container image or upload it to shared storage that is made available to containers. (For more information, see the Identify session persistence mechanism section.) The pathName parameter will have to be modified accordingly.

To determine whether MemoryRealm is currently used, inspect your server.xml and context.xml files and search for <Realm> elements where the className attribute is set to org.apache.catalina.realm.MemoryRealm.

In-place testing

Before you create container images, migrate your application to the JDK and Tomcat that you intend to use on ACA. Test your application thoroughly to ensure compatibility and performance.

Parameterize the configuration

In the pre-migration, you'll likely have identified secrets and external dependencies, such as datasources, in server.xml and context.xml files. For each item thus identified, replace any username, password, connection string, or URL with an environment variable.

For example, suppose the context.xml file contains the following element:


In this case, you could change it as shown in the following example:




Some Tomcat deployments may have multiple applications running on a single Tomcat server. If this is the case in your deployment, we strongly recommend running each application in a separate pod. This enables you to optimize resource utilization for each application while minimizing complexity and coupling.

Prepare the deployment artifacts

Clone the Tomcat on Containers Quickstart GitHub repository. This repository contains a Dockerfile and Tomcat configuration files with many recommended optimizations. In the steps below, we outline modifications you'll likely need to make to these files before building the container image and deploying to ACA.

Add JNDI resources

Edit server.xml to add the resources you prepared in the pre-migration steps, such as Data Sources, as shown in the following example:

<!-- Global JNDI resources
      Documentation at /docs/jndi-resources-howto.html
    <!-- Editable user database that can also be used by
         UserDatabaseRealm to authenticate users
    <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
              description="User database that can be updated and saved"

    <!-- Migrated datasources here: -->
    <!-- End of migrated datasources -->

For additional data source instructions, see the following sections of the JNDI Datasource How-To in the Tomcat documentation:

Build and push the image

The simplest way to build and upload the image to Azure Container Registry (ACR) for use by ACA is to use the az acr build command. This command doesn't require Docker to be installed on your computer. For example, if you have the Dockerfile from the tomcat-container-quickstart repo and the application package petclinic.war in the current directory, you can build the container image in ACR with the following command:

az acr build \
    --registry $acrName \
    --image "${acrName}.azurecr.io/petclinic:{{.Run.ID}}" 
    --build-arg APP_FILE=petclinic.war \
    --build-arg SERVER_XML=prod.server.xml .

You can omit the --build-arg APP_FILE... parameter if your WAR file is named ROOT.war. You can omit the --build-arg SERVER_XML... parameter if your server XML file is named server.xml. Both files must be in the same directory as Dockerfile.

Alternatively, you can use Docker CLI to build the image locally by using the following commands. This approach can simplify testing and refining the image before initial deployment to ACR. However, it requires Docker CLI to be installed and Docker daemon to be running.

# Build the image locally.
sudo docker build . --build-arg APP_FILE=petclinic.war -t "${acrName}.azurecr.io/petclinic:1"

# Run the image locally.
sudo docker run -d -p 8080:8080 "${acrName}.azurecr.io/petclinic:1"

# You can now access your application with a browser at http://localhost:8080.

# Sign in to ACR.
sudo az acr login --name $acrName

# Push the image to ACR.
sudo docker push "${acrName}.azurecr.io/petclinic:1"

For more information, see Build and store container images with Azure Container Registry.

Deploy to Azure Container Apps

The following command shows an example deployment:

az containerapp create \
    --resource-group <RESOURCE_GROUP> \
    --name <APP_NAME> \
    --environment <ENVIRONMENT_NAME> \
    --image <IMAGE_NAME> \
    --target-port 8080 \
    --ingress 'external' \
    --registry-server <REGISTRY_SERVER> \
    --min-replicas 1

For a more in-depth quickstart, see Quickstart: Deploy your first container app.


Now that you've migrated your application to ACA, you should verify that it works as you expect. Once you've done that, we have some recommendations for you that can make your application more Cloud native.


  • Design and implement a business continuity and disaster recovery strategy. For mission-critical applications, consider a multi-region deployment architecture. For more information, see Best practices for business continuity and disaster recovery in Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS).

  • Evaluate the items in the logging.properties file. Consider eliminating or reducing some of the logging output to improve performance.

  • Consider monitoring the code cache size and adding the parameters -XX:InitialCodeCacheSize and -XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize to the JAVA_OPTS variable in the Dockerfile to further optimize performance. For more information, see Codecache Tuning in the Oracle documentation.

  • Consider adding Azure Monitor alert rules and action groups to quickly detect and address aberrant conditions.

  • Consider replicating the Azure Container Apps deployment in another region for lower latency and higher reliability and fault tolerance. Use Azure Traffic Manager to load balance among deployments or use Azure Front Door to add SSL offloading and Web Application Firewall with DDoS protection.

  • If geo-replication isn't necessary, consider adding an Azure Application Gateway to add SSL offloading and Web Application Firewall with DDoS protection.