Here is a workaround for you refer to.
1.Create a new permission level. Go to Site permissions -> Permission Levels -> Click Edit permission -> Copy Permission Level -> Uncheck "Manage Lists - Create and delete lists, add or remove columns in a list, and add or remove public views of a list." -> Create.
2.Go to the Library settings -> Permissions for this document library -> Stop Inheriting Permissions -> Grant Permissions -> Grant students with newly created permission level.
3.Click Edit current view -> In the Filter section, set Created by is equal to [ME].
4.Result: Logged-in users can only see pictures uploaded by themselves.
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